Mark Kryder

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Mark Howard Kryder (born October 7, 1943 in Portland, Oregon) was Seagate Corp.'s senior vice president of research and chief technology officer.[1] Kryder holds a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and physics from the California Institute of Technology.[1]

Kryder was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 1994 for contributions to the understanding of magnetic domain behavior and for leadership in information storage research.

He is known for "Kryder's law", an observation from the mid-2000s about the increasing capacity of magnetic hard drives.

Kryder's law projection

A 2005 Scientific American article, titled "Kryder's Law", described Kryder's observation that magnetic disk areal storage density was then increasing at a rate exceeding Moore's Law.[2] The pace was then much faster than the two-year doubling time of semiconductor chip density posited by Moore's law.

Inside of a decade and a half, hard disks had increased their capacity 1,000-fold, a rate that Intel founder Gordon Moore himself has called "flabbergasting."

Kryder's Law[2]

In 2005, commodity drive density of 110 Gbit/in2 (170 Mbit/mm2) had been reached, up from 100 Mbit/in2 (155 Kbit/mm2) circa 1990.[2] This does not extrapolate back to the initial 2 kilobit/in2 (3.1 bit/mm2) drives introduced in 1956, as growth rates surged during the latter 15-year period.[2][3]

In 2009, Kryder[4] projected that if hard drives were to continue to progress at their then-current pace of about 40% per year, then in 2020 a two-platter, 2.5-inch disk drive would store approximately 40 terabytes (TB) and cost about $40.

The validity of the Kryder's law projection of 2009 was questioned halfway into the forecast period, and some called the actual rate of areal density progress the "Kryder rate". As of 2014, the observed Kryder rate had fallen well short of the 2009 forecast of 40% per year. A single 2.5-inch platter stored around 0.3 terabytes in 2009 and this reached 0.6 terabytes in 2014. The Kryder rate over the five years ending in 2014 was around 15% per year. To reach 20 terabytes by 2020, starting in 2014, would have required an implausibly high Kryder rate of better than 80% per year.[5]

By 2019, it was observed that Kryder's law "has proven to be outdated as the cost of media storage is decreasing at a slower pace than in the past and is now stabilising."[6]

Awards and honors

Mark H. Kryder is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the American Physical Society. [7] and a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).[1] He was Distinguished Lecturer for the IEEE Magnetics Society, and has been awarded the IEEE Magnetics Society Achievement Award and IEEE Reynold B. Johnson Information Storage Systems Award.[8] Kryder received the Pingat Bakti Masyarakat[9] from Singapore in their 2007 National Day Awards.


  1. ^ a b c "2007 George E. Pake Prize Recipient". American Physical Society. 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d Walter, Chip (August 2005). "Kryder's Law". Scientific American. 293 (2): 32–33. Bibcode:2005SciAm.293b..32W. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0805-32. PMID 16053134.
  3. ^ Sadik C. Esener; Mark H. Kryder; et al. (June 1999). "The Future of Data Storage Technologies" (PDF). International Technology Research Institute. p. 85. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  4. ^ Kryder, Mark H.; Chang Soo Kim (October 2009). "After Hard Drives - What Comes Next?". IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 45 (10): 3406–3413. Bibcode:2009ITM....45.3406K. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2009.2024163. S2CID 16550469.
  5. ^ Mellor, Chris (2014-11-10). "Kryder's law craps out: Race to UBER-CHEAP STORAGE is OVER". UK: The Register. Retrieved 2014-11-12. Currently 2.5-inch drives are at 500GB/platter with some at 600GB or even 667GB/platter – a long way from 20TB/platter. To reach 20TB by 2020, the 500GB/platter drives will have to increase areal density 44 times in six years. It isn't going to happen. ... Rosenthal writes: "The technical difficulties of migrating from PMR to HAMR, meant that already in 2010 the Kryder rate had slowed significantly and was not expected to return to its trend in the near future. The floods reinforced this."
  6. ^ Antoniazzi, Luca (2020-02-11). "Digital preservation and the sustainability of film heritage". Information, Communication & Society. 24 (11): 1658–1673. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2020.1716042. ISSN 1369-118X. S2CID 213769087. closed access, citing Rosenthal, David (2016-12-13). "The Medium-Term Prospects for Long-Term Storage Systems". Retrieved 2020-03-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "APS Fellow Archive". APS. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  8. ^ Nyenhuis, John; Richard Dee, eds. (August 2000). "Kryder Receives IEEE Reynold B. Johnson Information Storage Award". IEEE Magnetics Society Newsletter. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28.
  9. ^ "2007 Public Service Medal". Pingat Bakti Masyarakat (PMB). Archived from the original on 2008-02-07.

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