|Founded||April 15, 1926 |
(as American Airways, Inc.)
|Commenced operations||June 25, 1936|
|Fleet size||930 (mainline)|
|Parent company||American Airlines Group|
|Headquarters||Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.|
American Airlines is a major US-based airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the largest airline in the world when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenue passenger mile. American, together with its regional partners and affiliates, operates an extensive international and domestic network with almost 6,800 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of the Oneworld alliance, the third-largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.
American Airlines and American Eagle operate out of 10 hubs, with Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) being its largest. The airline handles more than 200 million passengers annually with an average of more than 500,000 passengers daily. As of 2021, the company employs 123,400 staff members.
American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines. The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This, in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system and was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001.
American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Douglas Aircraft Company founder Donald Wills Douglas Sr., when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. (The existing DC-2's cabin was 66 inches (1.7 m) wide, too narrow for side-by-side berths.) Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft. The prototype DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) first flew on December 17, 1935, (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk). Its cabin was 92 in (2.3 m) wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines. American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey, and Chicago, Illinois.
American also had a direct role in the development of the DC-10, which resulted from a specification from American Airlines to manufacturers in 1966 to offer a widebody aircraft that was smaller than the Boeing 747, but capable of flying similar long-range routes from airports with shorter runways. McDonnell Douglas responded with the DC-10 trijet shortly after the two companies' merger. On February 19, 1968, the president of American Airlines, George A. Spater, and James S. McDonnell of McDonnell Douglas announced American's intention to acquire the DC-10. American Airlines ordered 25 DC-10s in its first order. The DC-10 made its first flight on August 29, 1970, and received its type certificate from the FAA on July 29, 1971. On August 5, 1971, the DC-10 entered commercial service with American Airlines on a round trip flight between Los Angeles and Chicago.
In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better-recognized brand internationally; the combination of the two airlines resulted in the creation of the largest airline in the United States, and ultimately the world.
Destinations and hubs
As of July 2022, American Airlines flies to 269 domestic destinations and 81 international destinations in 48 countries (as of January 2022) in five continents.
American currently operates ten hubs.
- Charlotte – American's hub for the southeastern United States and secondary Caribbean gateway. Its operations in Concourse E are the largest regional flight operation in the world. American has about 91% of the market share at CLT, making it the largest carrier at the airport. Former US Airways hub.
- Chicago–O'Hare – American's hub for the Midwest. American has about 35% of the market share at O'Hare, making it the airport's second largest airline after United.
- Dallas/Fort Worth – American's hub for the southern United States and largest hub overall. American currently has about 87% of the market share at DFW, making it the largest carrier at the airport. American's corporate headquarters are also in Fort Worth near the airport. DFW serves as American's primary Transpacific hub, primary gateway to Mexico, and secondary gateway to Latin America.
- Los Angeles – American's hub for the West Coast and secondary transpacific gateway.
- Miami – American's primary Latin American and Caribbean hub. American has about 68% of the market share at Miami International, making it the largest airline at the airport.
- New York–JFK – American's primary transatlantic hub. Mostly serves destinations with a lot of business traffic. American has about 12% of the market share at JFK, making it the third largest carrier at the airport behind Delta and JetBlue.
- New York–LaGuardia – American's second New York hub.
- Philadelphia – American's primary Northeast domestic hub and secondary transatlantic hub, primarily for London, Paris, and leisure destinations in Western and Southern Europe. American has about 70% of the market share at PHL, making it the airport's largest airline. Former US Airways hub.
- Phoenix–Sky Harbor – American's Rocky Mountain hub. Currently American has about 33% of the market share at PHX, making it the airport's second-largest airline. Former US Airways hub.
- Washington–Reagan – American's hub for the capital of the United States. American has about 49% of the market share at DCA, making it the largest carrier at the airport. Former US Airways hub.
- Aer Lingus
- Air Tahiti Nui
- Alaska Airlines
- Cape Air
- Cathay Pacific
- China Southern Airlines
- El Al
- Fiji Airways
- Gol Transportes Aéreos
- Hawaiian Airlines
- Jetstar Airways
- Jetstar Japan
- Malaysia Airlines
- Qatar Airways
- Royal Air Maroc
- Royal Jordanian
- Seaborne Airlines
- Silver Airways
- SriLankan Airlines
Over 80% of American's aircraft are narrow-bodies, mainly Airbus A320 series and the Boeing 737-800. It is the largest A320 series aircraft operator in the world, as well as the largest operator of the A319 and A321 variants. It is the fourth-largest operator of 737 family aircraft and second-largest operator of the 737-800 variant.
American exclusively ordered Boeing aircraft throughout the 2000s. This strategy shifted on July 20, 2011, when American announced the largest combined aircraft order in history for 460 narrow-body jets including 260 aircraft from the Airbus A320 series. Additional Airbus aircraft joined the fleet in 2013 during the US Airways merger, which operated a nearly all Airbus fleet.
American Airlines operates aircraft maintenance and repair bases at the Charlotte, Chicago O'Hare, Dallas–Fort Worth, Pittsburgh (where all its Airbus narrowbody aircraft are maintained), and Tulsa airports.
- Flagship First
Flagship First is American's international and transcontinental first class product. It is offered only on Boeing 777-300ERs and select Airbus A321s which American designates "A321T". The seats are fully lie-flat and offer direct aisle access with only one on each side of the aisle in each row. As with the airline's other premium cabins, Flagship First offers wider food and beverage options, larger seats, and lounge access at certain airports. American offers domestic Flagship First service on transcontinental routes between New York–JFK and Los Angeles, New York–JFK and San Francisco, New York-JFK and Santa Ana, Boston and Los Angeles, and Miami and Los Angeles, as well as on the standard domestic route between New York-JFK and Boston. The airline will debut new Flagship Suite® premium seats and a revamped aircraft interior for its long-haul fleet with fresh deliveries of its Airbus A321XLR and Boeing 787-9 aircraft, beginning in 2024.
- Flagship Business
Flagship Business is American's international and transcontinental business class product. It is offered on all Boeing 777-200ERs, Boeing 777-300ERs, Boeing 787-8s, and Boeing 787-9s, as well as select Airbus A321s. All Flagship Business seats are fully lie-flat.
- Domestic first class
First class is offered on all domestically configured aircraft. Seats range from 19–21 inches (48–53 cm) in width and have 37–42 inches (94–107 cm) of pitch. Dining options include complementary alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on all flights as well as standard economy snack offerings, enhanced snack basket selections on flights over 500 miles (800 km), and meals on flights 900 miles (1,400 km) or longer.
- Premium Economy
Premium Economy is American's economy plus product. It is offered on all widebody aircraft. The cabin debuted on the airline's Boeing 787-9s in late 2016 and is also available on Boeing 777-200s and -300s, and Boeing 787-8s. Premium Economy seats are wider than seats in the main cabin (American's economy cabin) and provide more amenities: Premium Economy customers get two free checked bags, priority boarding, and enhanced food and drink service including free alcohol. This product made American Airlines the first U.S. carrier to offer a four-cabin aircraft.
- Main Cabin Extra
Main Cabin Extra is American's enhanced economy product. It is available on all of the mainline fleet and American Eagle aircraft. Main Cabin Extra seats include greater pitch than is available in main cabin, along with free alcoholic beverages and boarding one group ahead of main cabin. American retained Main Cabin Extra when the new Premium Economy product entered service in late 2016.
- Main Cabin
Main Cabin (economy class) is American's economy product and is found on all mainline and regional aircraft in its fleet. Seats range from 17–18.5 inches (43–47 cm) in width and have 30–32 inches (76–81 cm) of pitch. American markets a number of rows within the main cabin immediately behind Main Cabin Extra as "Main Cabin Preferred", which require an extra charge to select for those without status.
American Airlines marketed increased legroom in economy class as "More Room Throughout Coach", also referred to as "MRTC", starting in February 2000. Two rows of economy class seats were removed on domestic narrowbody aircraft, resulting in more than half of all standard economy seats having a pitch of 34 inches (86 cm) or more. Amid financial losses, this scheme was discontinued in 2004.
On many routes, American also offers Basic Economy, the airline's lowest main cabin fare. Basic Economy consists of a Main Cabin ticket with numerous restrictions including waiting until check-in for a seat assignment, no upgrades or refunds, and boarding in the last group. Originally Basic Economy passengers could only carry a personal item, but American later revised their Basic Economy policies to allow for a carry-on bag.
In May 2017, American announced it would be adding more seats to some of its Boeing 737 MAX 8 jets and reducing overall legroom in the basic economy class. The last three rows were to lose 2 inches (5.1 cm), going from the current 31 to 29 inches (79 to 74 cm). The remainder of the main cabin was to have 30 inches (76 cm) of legroom. This "Project Oasis" seating configuration has since been expanded to all 737 MAX 8s as well as standard Boeing 737-800 and non-transcontinental Airbus A321 jets. New Airbus A321neo jets have been delivered with the same configuration.
AAdvantage is the frequent flyer program for American Airlines. It was launched on May 1, 1981, and it remains the largest frequent flyer program with over 115 million members as of 2021. Miles accumulated in the program allow members to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners. The most active members, based on the amount and price of travel booked, are designated AAdvantage Gold, AAdvantage Platinum, AAdvantage Platinum Pro, and AAdvantage Executive Platinum elite members, with privileges such as separate check-in, priority upgrade, and standby processing, or free upgrades. They also receive similar privileges from AA's partner airlines, particularly those in oneworld.[better source needed]
AAdvantage co-branded credit cards are also available and offer other benefits. The cards are issued by CitiCards, a subsidiary of Citigroup, and Barclaycard in the United States, by several banks including Butterfield Bank and Scotiabank in the Caribbean, and by Banco Santander in Brazil.
AAdvantage allows one-way redemption, starting at 7,500 miles.
The Admirals Club was conceived by AA president C.R. Smith as a marketing promotion shortly after he was made an honorary Texas Ranger. Inspired by the Kentucky colonels and other honorary title designations, Smith decided to make particularly valued passengers "admirals" of the "Flagship fleet" (AA called its aircraft "Flagships" at the time).[better source needed] The list of admirals included many celebrities, politicians, and other VIPs, as well as more "ordinary" customers who had been particularly loyal to the airline.
There was no physical Admirals Club until shortly after the opening of LaGuardia Airport. During the airport's construction, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had an upper-level lounge set aside for press conferences and business meetings. At one such press conference, he noted that the entire terminal was being offered for lease to airline tenants; after a reporter asked whether the lounge would be leased as well, LaGuardia replied that it would, and a vice president of AA immediately offered to lease the premises. The airline then procured a liquor license and began operating the lounge as the "Admirals Club" in 1939.
The second Admirals Club opened at Washington National Airport. Because it was illegal to sell alcohol in Virginia at the time, the club contained refrigerators for the use of its members, so they could store their liquor at the airport. For many years, membership in the Admirals Club (and most other airline lounges) was by the airline's invitation. After a passenger sued for discrimination, the club switched to a paid membership program in 1974.
Though affiliated with the Admirals Club and staffed by many of the same employees, the Flagship Lounge is a separate lounge specifically designed for customers flying in first class and business class on international flights and transcontinental domestic flights, as well as AAdvantage Concierge Key, Executive Platinum, Platinum Pro, and Platinum, as well as Oneworld Emerald and Sapphire frequent flyers. As of May 2019, Flagship Lounges are located at five airports: New York–JFK, Chicago-O'Hare, Miami International, Los Angeles, and Dallas/Fort Worth. Flagship Lounges are planned for London-Heathrow and Philadelphia.
Ownership and structure
American Airlines, Inc., is publicly traded through its parent company, American Airlines Group Inc., under NASDAQ: AAL Nasdaq: AAL, with a market capitalization of about $12 billion as of 2019, and is included in the S&P 500 index.
American Eagle is a network of six regional carriers that operate under a codeshare and service agreement with American, operating flights to destinations in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, and Mexico. Three of these carriers are independent and three are subsidiaries of American Airlines Group: Envoy Air Inc., Piedmont Airlines, Inc., and PSA Airlines Inc.
American Airlines is headquartered across several buildings in Fort Worth, Texas that it calls the "Robert L. Crandall Campus" in honor of former president and CEO Robert Crandall. The 1,700,000-square-foot (160,000 m2) square-foot, five-building office complex called was designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects. The campus is located on 300 acres, adjacent to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, American's fortress hub.
Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City. In 1979, American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a "betrayal" of New York City. American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas. On January 17, 1983, the airline finished moving into a $150 million ($408,000,000 when adjusted for inflation), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth; $147 million (about $400,000,000 when adjusted for inflation) in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility. Following the merger of US Airways and American Airlines, the new company consolidated its corporate headquarters in Fort Worth, abandoning the US Airways headquarters in Phoenix, AZ.
As of 2015, American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth.
In 2015, American announced that it would build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy completed in September 2019. The airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building.
It will be located on a 41-acre (17 ha) property adjacent to the airline's flight academy and conference and training center, west of Texas State Highway 360, 2 miles (3.2 km) west from the current headquarters. The airline will lease a total of 300 acres (120 ha) from Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport and this area will include the headquarters. Construction of the new headquarters began after the demolition of the Sabre facility, previously on the site.
In 1931, Goodrich Murphy, an American employee, designed the AA logo as an entry in a logo contest. The eagle in the logo was copied from a Scottish hotel brochure. The logo was redesigned by Massimo Vignelli in 1967. Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo Internet-compatible by buying the domain AA.com. AA is also American's two-letter IATA airline designator.
On January 17, 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign with FutureBrand dubbed, "A New American". This included a new logo, which includes elements of the 1967 logo.
American Airlines faced difficulty obtaining copyright registration for their 2013 logo. On June 3, 2016, American Airlines sought to register it with the United States Copyright Office, but in October of that year, the Copyright Office ruled that the logo was ineligible for copyright protection, as it did not pass the threshold of originality, and was thus in the public domain. American requested that the Copyright Office reconsider, but on January 8, 2018, the Copyright Office affirmed its initial determination. After American Airlines submitted additional materials, the Copyright Office reversed its decision on December 7, 2018, and ruled that the logo contained enough creativity to merit copyright protection.
American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage. The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.
In the late 1960s, American commissioned designer Massimo Vignelli to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail; instead, Vignelli created a highly stylized eagle, which remained the company's logo until January 16, 2013.
On January 17, 2013, American unveiled a new livery. Before then, American had been the only major U.S. airline to leave most of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith would not say he liked painted aircraft and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs.
In January 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign dubbed, "The New American". In addition to a new logo, American Airlines introduced a new livery for its fleet. The airline calls the new livery and branding "a clean and modern update". The current design features an abstract American flag on the tail, along with a silver-painted fuselage, as a throw-back to the old livery. The new design was painted by Leading Edge Aviation Services in California. Doug Parker, the incoming CEO indicated that the new livery could be short-lived, stating that "maybe we need to do something slightly different than that ... The only reason this is an issue now is that they just did it right in the middle, which kind of makes it confusing, so that gives us an opportunity, actually, to decide if we are going to do something different because we have so many airplanes to paint". The current logo and livery have had mixed criticism, with Design Shack editor Joshua Johnson writing that they "boldly and proudly communicate the concepts of American pride and freedom wrapped into a shape that instantly makes you think about an airplane", and AskThePilot.com author Patrick Smith describing the logo as 'a linoleum knife poking through a shower curtain'. Later in January 2013, Bloomberg asked the designer of the 1968 American Airlines logo (Massimo Vignelli) on his opinion over the rebranding.
In the end, American let their employees decide the new livery's fate. On an internal website for employees, American posted two options, one the new livery and one a modified version of the old livery. All of the American Airlines Group employees (including US Airways and other affiliates) were able to vote. American ultimately decided to keep the new look. Parker announced that American would keep a US Airways and America West heritage aircraft in the fleet, with plans to add a heritage TWA aircraft and a heritage American plane with the old livery. As of September 2019, American has heritage aircraft for Piedmont, PSA, America West, US Airways, Reno Air, TWA, and AirCal in their fleet. They also have two AA branded heritage 737-800 aircraft, an AstroJet N905NN, and the polished aluminum livery used from 1967 to 2013, N921NN.
The main representatives of key groups of employees are:
- The Allied Pilots Association is an in-house union which represents the nearly 15,000 American Airlines pilots; it was created in 1963 after the pilots left the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA). However the majority of American Eagle pilots are ALPA members.
- The Association of Professional Flight Attendants represents American Airlines flight attendants, including former USAirways flight attendants.
- Flight attendants at wholly owned regional carriers (Envoy, Piedmont, and PSA) are all represented by Association of Flight Attendants – Communications Workers of America (AFA-CWA). US Airways flight attendants were active members of AFA-CWA before the merger, and they are honorary lifetime members. AFA-CWA is the largest flight attendant union in the industry.
- The Transport Workers Union-International Association of Machinists alliance (TWU-IAM) represents the majority of American Airlines employed fleet service agents, mechanics, and other ground workers.
- American's customer service and gate employees belong to the Communications Workers of America/International Brotherhood of Teamsters Passenger Service Association.
Concerns and conflicts
Since 1981, as a means of creating revenue in a period of loss-making, American Airlines had offered a lifetime pass of unlimited travel, for the initial cost of $250,000. This entitled the pass holder to fly anywhere in the world. 28 were sold. However, after some time, the airline realized they were making losses on the tickets, with the ticketholders costing them up to $1 million each. Ticketholders were booking large amounts of flights, and some ticketholders flying interstate for lunch or flying to London multiple times a month. AA raised the cost of the lifetime pass to $3 million, and then finally stopped offering it in 2003. AA then used litigation to cancel two of the lifetime offers, saying the passes "had been terminated due to fraudulent activity".
Cabin fume events
- In 1988, on American Airlines Flight 132's approach into Nashville, flight attendants notified the cockpit that there was smoke in the cabin. The flight crew in the cockpit ignored the warning, as on a prior flight, a fume event had occurred due to a problem with the auxiliary power unit. However, the smoke on Flight 132 was caused by improperly packaged hazardous materials. According to the NTSB inquiry, the cockpit crew persistently refused to acknowledge that there was a serious threat to the aircraft or the passengers, even after they were told that the floor was becoming soft and passengers had to be reseated. As a result, the aircraft was not evacuated immediately on landing, exposing the crew and passengers to the threat of smoke and fire longer than necessary.
- On April 11, 2007, toxic smoke and oil fumes leaked into the aircraft cabin as American Airlines Flight 843 taxied to the gate. A flight attendant who was present in the cabin subsequently filed a lawsuit against Boeing, stating that she was diagnosed with neurotoxic disorder due to her exposure to the fumes, which caused her to experience memory loss, tremors, and severe headaches. She settled with the company in 2011.
- In 2009, Mike Holland, deputy chairman for radiation and environmental issues at the Allied Pilots Association and an American Airlines pilot, said that the pilot union had started alerting pilots of the danger of contaminated bleed air, including contacting crew members that the union thinks were exposed to contamination based on maintenance records and pilot logs.
- In a January 2017 incident on American Airlines Flight 1896, seven flight attendants were hospitalized after a strange odor was detected in the cabin. The Airbus A330 involved subsequently underwent a "thorough maintenance inspection", having been involved in three fume events in three months.
- In August 2018, American Airlines flight attendants picketed in front of the Fort Worth company headquarters over a change in sick day policy, complaining that exposure to ill passengers, toxic uniforms, toxic cabin air, radiation exposure, and other issues were causing them to be sick.
- In January 2019, two pilots and three flight attendants on Flight 1897 from Philadelphia to Fort Lauderdale were hospitalized following complaints of a strange odor.
On October 24, 2017, the NAACP issued a travel advisory for American Airlines urging African Americans to "exercise caution" when traveling with the airline. The NAACP issued the advisory after four incidents. In one incident, a black woman was moved from first class to coach while her white traveling companion was allowed to remain in first class. In another incident, a black man was forced to give up his seats after being confronted by two unruly white passengers. According to the NAACP, while they did receive complaints on other airlines, most of their complaints in the year before their advisory were on American Airlines. In July 2018, the NAACP lifted their travel advisory saying that American has made improvements to mitigate discrimination and unsafe treatment of African Americans.
Accidents and incidents
As of March 2019, the airline has had almost sixty aircraft hull losses, beginning with the crash of an American Airways Ford 5-AT-C Trimotor in August 1931. Of these most were propeller driven aircraft, including three Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop aircraft (of which one, the crash in 1959 of Flight 320, resulted in fatalities). The two accidents with the highest fatalities in both the airline's and U.S. aviation history were Flight 191 in 1979 and Flight 587 in 2001.
Out of the 17 hijackings of American Airlines flights, two aircraft were hijacked and destroyed in the September 11 attacks: Flight 11 crashed into the north facade of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, and Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon; both were bound for LAX from Boston Logan International Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport respectively. Other accidents include the Flight 383 engine failure and fire in 2016. There were two training flight accidents in which the crew were killed and six that resulted in no fatalities. Another four jet aircraft have been written off due to incidents while they were parked between flights or while undergoing maintenance.
American Airlines reported total CO2e emissions (direct and indirect) for the twelve months ending December 31, 2020, at 20,092 Kt (-21,347 /-51.5% y-o-y). The company aims to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050.
|Dec 2016||Dec 2017||Dec 2018||Dec 2019||Dec 2020|
- Air transportation in the United States
- List of airlines of the United States
- List of airports in the United States
- U.S. Airways, which merged with American Airlines in 2013
Notes and references
- "American Airlines". ch-aviation. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "7340.2F with Change 1 and Change 2 and Change 3" (PDF). Washington: Federal Aviation Administration. October 15, 2015. pp. 3–1–18. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "History of American Airlines". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. 2015. Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "Airline Certificate Information – Detail View". Washington: Federal Aviation Administration. May 12, 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
Certificate Number AALA025A
- "About us". American Airlines. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- "Corporate structure". American Airlines. Archived from the original on June 6, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
Location 1 Skyview Drive Fort Worth, TX 76155
- "American Airlines Group - employees 2012-2021". Statista.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2022. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
- "American Airlines Group − About us − American Airlines". Aa.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- "American Air signs deal to contract out some flying to SkyWest". The Associated. Yahoo! News. September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Koenig, David (November 29, 2011). "American Airlines parent seeks Ch. 11 protection". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "TWA to be bought by American - Jan. 10, 2001". money.cnn.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- Pearcy, Arthur. Douglas DC-3 Survivors, Volume 1. Bourne End, Bucks, UK: Aston Publications, 1987. ISBN 0-946627-13-4, p. 17
- Holden, Henry. "DC-3 History" Archived September 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. dc3history.org. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- Waddington 2000, pp. 6–18.
- Endres 1998, p. 16.
- "American Orders 25 'Airbus' Jets". Archived November 4, 2021, at the Wayback Machine St. Petersburg Times, September 14, 2011.
- Endres 1998, pp. 25–26.
- Endres 1998, p. 28.
- Endres 1998, p. 52.
- "American Airlines – American company". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "American Airlines Map". aa.fltmaps.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- "Newsroom – Multimedia – American Airlines Group, Inc". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. Archived from the original on May 2, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- "CLT :: American Airlines Newsroom". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "ORD :: American Airlines Newsroom". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "DFW :: American Airlines Newsroom". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "Los Angeles International Airport – Factsheet". Fort Worth: American Airlines Group. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "MIA :: American Airlines Newsroom". Hub.aa.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "A Look at American's Transatlantic Summer 2022 Network". January 30, 2022.
- "JFK :: American Airlines Newsroom". aa.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015.
- "LGA :: American Airlines Newsroom". aa.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015.
- "PHL :: American Airlines Newsroom". aa.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "Loss of a corporate headquarters may cost Phoenix jobs, prestige". Dallasnews.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Annual Stats File - 2020" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 2, 2021.
- "DCA :: American Airlines Newsroom". aa.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- "Partner airlines". Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
- "American Airlines and Aer Lingus Launch New Codeshare Agreement". Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
- "Code Share Agreements". Archived from the original on January 23, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
- "American Airlines / GOL Begins codeshare service from mid-Feb 2020 | Routes". Archived from the original on February 9, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- "India nonstops on the way, American Airlines codeshares with IndiGo for India connections". The Times of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
- "JetBlue and American will share passengers in bid to fend off United and Delta". CNBC. July 16, 2020. Archived from the original on July 16, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- "American Airlines and JetSMART Sign Letter of Intent to Create the Broadest and Most Rewarding Network in the Americas". Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
- "LEVEL, American Airlines resumes Codeshare Agreement". Archived from the original on January 23, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
- "American Airlines & Qatar Airways Announce Strategic Partnership". One Mile at a Time. February 25, 2020. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "SriLankan Reinstates American Airlines Codeshare". Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
- "American Airlines Launching Codeshares With Vueling". December 21, 2019. Archived from the original on January 23, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
- "About us, American Airlines Group, Business Agreements, Joint Business Agreement". aa.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- "Japan Airlines and American Airlines Joint Service". jal.co.jp. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- "American Airlines and Qantas gain approval to form joint venture". cnet. July 19, 2019. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- "American Airlines Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
- Ruiz, Rebecca (March 23, 2019). "Boeing Was 'Go, Go, Go' to Beat Airbus With the 737 Max". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
- "AMR Corporation Announces Largest Aircraft Order in History With Boeing and Airbus" (Press release). American Airlines. July 20, 2011. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- "How American Airlines Became The World's Largest Airbus A320 Family Operator". Simple Flying. January 10, 2021. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- LeBeau, Phil (August 16, 2022). "American Airlines agrees to buy 20 supersonic planes from Boom". CNBC. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022.
- Dougherty, Evan (July 19, 2021). "American Airlines Extends Lease at PIT Base". Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Schlappig, Ben (December 29, 2014). "AA International First Class Review". One Mile at a Time. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Martin, Hugo. "American Airlines' new lounge for elite fliers at LAX includes a Bloody Mary bar". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "SeatGuru Seat Map American Airlines". www.seatguru.com. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "American Airlines Introduces New Flagship Suite® Seats". Web Archive. Web Archive. September 21, 2022. Archived from the original on September 27, 2022. Retrieved September 21, 2022.
- "American Airlines Planes, Fleet and Seat Maps". www.seatguru.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "Premium dining − Travel information − American Airlines". www.aa.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
- Dwyer-Lindgren, Jeremy. "Now flying on American: Real international-style premium economy seats". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Schlappig, Ben (March 7, 2020). "Review: American Airlines Main Cabin Extra 737". One Mile at a Time. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Reuters (February 4, 2000). "American Air to Put More Room in Coach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
|last=has generic name (help)
- Sanburn, Josh (March 2, 2012). "American Airlines Offering More Legroom ... For a Price". Time. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Martín, Hugo (February 25, 2017). "United and American Airlines to board basic economy passengers last". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- Zumbach, Lauren. "American Airlines will let basic economy passengers travel with carry-on bags". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Ostrower, Jon (May 3, 2017). "American Airlines is cutting more legroom in economy class". CNN Money. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on January 29, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- AAdvantage Celebrates 40 Years of Loyalty Innovation
- oneworld Alliance Archived December 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Aa.com (October 1, 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
- "AAdvantage credit cards − AAdvantage program − American Airlines". www.aa.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "Butterfield / AAdvantage MasterCard - Benefits - American Airlines". www.aa.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "Scotiabank / AAdvantage cards - Benefits - American Airlines". www.aa.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "Cartões de crédito AAdvantage no Brasil – Programa AAdvantage – American Airlines". www.aa.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "American Airlines AAdvantage Points". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- Li, Lucy. "Ultimate Guide to Admirals Club". LoungeBuddy. LoungeBuddy, Inc. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
- Turell, Claire (March 18, 2019). "The Admirals Club guide". Blacklane Blog. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Toward Equality for VIPs". Time. July 15, 1966. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
- Bongartz, Roy (March 17, 1974). "Thanks to One Stubborn Man, Everyone Can Be an Airport V.I.P." The New York Times. p. 1, § 10. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2021.
- American Airlines, Inc., 64 C.A.B. 555 Archived December 12, 2021, at the Wayback Machine (1974).
- Tkaczyk, Christopher (May 25, 2017). "An Inside Look at the New American Airlines Flagship Lounge at JFK Airport". Fortune. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Lazare, Lewis (September 13, 2017). "American Airlines rolls out flashy Flagship Lounge at O'Hare Airport (Photos)". Chicago Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Satchell, Arlene (November 16, 2017). "American's Flagship Lounge at MIA opens Tuesday for first-class, business travelers". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Jurgens, Jane (January 23, 2019). "Lounge Check: American Airlines Flagship Business Class lounge at LAX". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Hoopfer, Evan (May 14, 2019). "Shower in an airport? See inside American's swanky new DFW lounge". Dallas Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 12, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- "American Airlines Robert L. Crandall Campus". Corps Best American Airlines Corporate Office LLC. Archived from the original on December 24, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
- "American Airlines unveils new $350 million headquarters in Fort Worth". Dallas News. September 23, 2019. Archived from the original on December 2, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
- World Airline Directory. Flight International. March 20, 1975. "472". Archived December 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Flatiron / Gramercy / Murray Hill / Union Square: Manhattan Neighborhood Map". Archived November 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine About.com. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- Sterba, James P. "American Will Shift Headquarters From Manhattan to Dallas Airport; Big Economies Predicted". Archived April 30, 2018, at the Wayback Machine The New York Times. Thursday November 16, 1978. Page A1. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- "American Airlines Finishes Moving into Headquarters Monday". Archived September 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Associated Press at Ocala Star-Banner. January 16, 1983. 6A. Google News 4 of 62. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- Brown, Steve. "American Airlines will build new headquarters in Fort Worth". (Archive). The Dallas Morning News. October 22, 2015. Retrieved on October 27, 2015. "Robert Sturns, Fort Worth's economic development director, said the city was committed to keeping its largest corporate citizen."
- Owens, Marjorie, Jason Whitely, and Jim Douglas. "American to build new headquarters in Fort Worth" (Archive). WFAA. October 22, 2015. Retrieved on October 24, 2015.
- "Tales From an Era When Airlines Knew Good Design". Wired. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Vignelli Associates About the AA Logo". Vignelli.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "iconic logo designers". logosdesigners.com. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "Current Airline Members". Iata.org. Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Wilson, Mark (January 22, 2013). "American Airlines Rebrands Itself, And America Along With It". Fast Company. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Zaller Rowland, Catherine (January 8, 2018). "Re: Second Request for Reconsideration for Refusal to Register American Airlines Flight Symbol; Correspondence ID: 1-28H4ZFK; SR#: 1-3537494381" (PDF). Copyright.gov. United States Copyright Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- "US Copyright Office Says What We're All Thinking: American Airlines Lacks Creativity – One Mile at a Time". One Mile at a Time. January 25, 2018. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "Re: Registration Decision Regarding American Airlines Flight Symbol; Correspondence ID 1-28H4ZFK; SR 1-3537494381" (PDF). United States Copyright Office. December 7, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- "American Airlines Unveils New Logo and Livery". Airlines and Destinations. January 17, 2013. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- "Boeing 707 Jet Airliner Non-Stop Service between New York City and Los Angeles", Boeing Magazine 30 (1958), 66.
- "Why Is American Airlines Changing Its Stripes?". Condé Nast Traveler. January 17, 2013. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "American Airlines unveils new logo, livery". Chicago Tribune. January 17, 2013. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "Delta, Air Canada Among Carriers Weighing Benefit of Paint Stripping". Industry.bnet.com. October 8, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "Becoming a new American". American Airlines. Archived from the original on October 8, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Ahles, Andrea (January 18, 2013). "American Airlines shows off new look for new era". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- King, Eric. (March 28, 2013) American Airline's New Livery Soon Could Become Its Old Look | NBC 5 Dallas–Fort Worth Archived March 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Nbcdfw.com. Retrieved on July 18, 2013.
- Johnson, Joshua (January 23, 2013). "Check Out the New American Airlines Logo". Design Shack. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- Smith, Patrick (January 6, 2014). "The New American Airlines Livery". AskThePilot.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2019. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- Mayo, Keenan (January 19, 2013). "Q&A: Original American Airlines Designer Massimo Vignelli on the Redesigned Logo" (Web). Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
- Maxon, Terry (December 2013). "Doug Parker to let American Airlines employees decide whether to keep the new AA tail". Dallas News. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- Heinz, Frank (January 2, 2014). "American Airlines Employees Vote to Keep New Livery". NBC. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- "[PHOTOS] Heritage Livery Flies Again in American Airlines' Retro Rollout". APEX | Airline Passenger Experience. December 3, 2015. Archived from the original on August 5, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- Ewing, Ryan (June 5, 2017). "Photos: American Rolls out New AstroJet-Themed Boeing 737-800". AirlineGeeks.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- Ewing, Ryan (December 14, 2017). "American Quietly Adds Polished Aluminum Retro Livery to a Boeing 737-800". AirlineGeeks.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- "Airlines Pilot Association". Archived from the original on April 12, 2003. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- "Envoy Air – ALPA". alpa.org. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "American Airlines flight attendants to get bigger pay raises after all". Dallasnews.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Josephs, Leslie (November 1, 2019). "Largest US flight attendant union targets Delta cabin crews". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "American CEO says contract proposals to ground workers to have "double-digit" pay increases". Star-telegram.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Jean, Sheryl. "American Airlines customer service and gate agents approve new labor contract". Airline Biz Blog. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- "American Airlines Will Make Clean Air Improvements at Logan Airport Reports to EPA the Use of Illegal High Sulfur Fuel in Motor Vehicles". United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 19, 1999. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- "The men who took 10,000 flights". The Hustle. April 7, 2018. Archived from the original on June 2, 2022. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "'Free'quent flier has wings clipped after American Airlines takes away his unlimited pass". New York Post. May 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 27, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Chute, Rebecca D.; Wiener, Earl L. (1996). "Cockpit-cabin communication: II. Shall we tell the pilots?". The International Journal of Aviation Psychology. 6 (3): 211–231. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap0603_1. PMID 11540138. S2CID 11191665.
- Cross, Jamie (2012). "Sources of friction" (PDF). AeroSafety World. pp. 32–35. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019 – via Flightsafety.org.
- Boeing suit settlement stirs jetliner air safety debate Archived February 11, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, NBC news, October 6, 2011
- Nassauer, Sarah (July 30, 2009). "Up in the Air: New Worries About 'Fume Events' on Planes". Archived April 12, 2019, at the Wayback Machine The Wall Street Journal.
- 'Fume event' hospitalises American Airlines crew in latest incident concerning cabin air Archived February 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Telegraph, January 4, 2017
- American Airlines Jet Has 3rd Fume Incident in 3 Months, 7 Flight Attendants Transported to Hospital and Released Archived February 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News, January 3, 2017
- American Airlines flight attendants are gearing up for battle over the company's 'punitive' new attendance policy Archived February 7, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Business Insider, August 31, 2018
- American Airlines flight attendants to picket headquarters Thursday Archived August 6, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, August 29, 2018, Chicago Business Journal
- American Airlines pilots, flight attendants fall ill on Philadelphia to Florida flight Archived January 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today, January 11, 2019
- Five American Airlines staffers hospitalized after noticing 'odor' on plane Archived January 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Fox News, January 10, 2019
- The NAACP issues travel advisory for American Airlines, warning black passengers of 'disturbing incidents' Archived January 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, PBS, October 25, 2017
- NAACP: Most complaints about American Airlines. What can brands learn? Archived January 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today, October 25, 2017
- NAACP lifts travel advisory against American Airlines Archived January 25, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, PBS, July 17, 2018
- "American Airways safety occurrences". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- "American Airlines safety occurrences". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
- Ranter, Harro. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Geographical regions > United States of America air safety profile". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on October 27, 2019. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Paul Joseph, ed. (2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives. SAGE Publications. p. 1533. ISBN 978-1-4833-5988-5. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
- "American Airlines Group Inc.'s ESG Datasheet for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 13, 2021. Alt URL Archived November 13, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
- "Net zero carbon emissions by 2050". Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
- "American Airlines Group Inc.'s ESG Datasheet for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 13, 2021. Alt URL Archived November 13, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
- "American Airlines Group Inc.'s ESG Datasheet for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 13, 2021. Alt URL Archived November 13, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
- Bedwell, Don (1999). Silverbird: the American Airlines story. Sandpoint, Idaho: Airways International. ISBN 0-9653993-6-2. OCLC 43762553. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Capozzi, John M. (2001). A spirit of greatness: stories from the employees of American Airlines (1st ed.). Fairfield, Conn.: JMC Pub. Services. ISBN 0-9656410-3-1. OCLC 40986912. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Casey, Albert V. (1997). Casey's law: if something can go right, it should (1st ed.). New York: Arcade Pub. ISBN 1-55970-307-5. OCLC 32430679. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Endres, Günter (1998). McDonnell Douglas DC-10. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0617-6.
- Forty, Simon (1997). American Airlines. Vergennes, VT: Plymouth Press. ISBN 1-882663-21-7. OCLC 39542166. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Hieger, Linda H. (2010). With wings of silver and gold: the history and uniforms of American Airlines stewardesses/flight attendants. United States. ISBN 978-1-60458-271-0. OCLC 682191394. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Reed, Dan (1993). The American eagle: the ascent of Bob Crandall and American Airlines (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08696-2. OCLC 27173065. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Serling, Robert J. (1985). Eagle: the story of American Airlines (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's/Marek. ISBN 0-312-22453-2. OCLC 12107802. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- Waddington, Terry (2000). McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Miami, Florida: World Transport Press. ISBN 1-892437-04-X.
- International directory of company histories. Vol. 27. Detroit, Mich.: St. James Press. 1999. ISBN 978-1-55862-668-3. OCLC 769042340. Archived from the original on June 25, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021.