Appalachia (landmass)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of North America during the Campanian

During most of the Late Cretaceous (100.5 to 66 million years ago) the eastern half of North America formed Appalachia (named for the Appalachian Mountains), an island land mass separated from Laramidia to the west by the Western Interior Seaway. This seaway had split North America into two massive landmasses due to a multitude of factors such as tectonism and sea-level fluctuations for nearly 40 million years.[1][2] The seaway eventually expanded, divided across the Dakotas, and by the end of the Cretaceous,[3] it retreated towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Hudson Bay. This left the island masses joined in the continent of North America as the Rocky Mountains rose.[4] From the Cenomanian to the end of the Campanian ages of the Late Cretaceous, Appalachia was separated from the rest of North America. As the Western Interior Seaway retreated in the Maastrichtian, Laramidia and Appalachia eventually connected.[5] Because of this, its fauna was isolated, and developed very differently from the tyrannosaur, ceratopsian, hadrosaurid, pachycephalosaur and ankylosaurid dominated fauna of the western part of North America, known as "Laramidia".[6]

Due to high sea levels, subsequent erosion,[7] and the lack of orogenic input of sediment into the Western Interior Seaway unlike the east coast of Laramidia, no terrestrially formed deposits have survived, with most dinosaur remains originating from seaborne carcasses that were transported into marine environments. This same lack of terrestrial sediments is also present on the western coast of Laramidia. Some sediments in the northern part of the range have been removed by glacial erosion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during Quaternary glaciations,[8] but it is difficult to ascertain how much sediment has been removed, or whether these sediments would have been any more productive than those that remain. Thus relatively little is known about Appalachia in comparison to Laramidia, with the exception of plant life, marine life and the insects trapped in amber from New Jersey. In addition, due to a lack of interest in Appalachia, many fossils that have been found in Appalachia lie unstudied and remain in the inaccurate genera to which they were assigned in the days of E. D. Cope and O. C. Marsh. Only a few fossils of the terrestrial creatures that were found in this region have given us a brief glimpse into what life was like here during the Cretaceous period. However, the area has seen a bit of a resurgence of interest due to several discoveries made in the past few years.[9][10][11][12][13] As mentioned earlier, not much is known about Appalachia, but some fossil sites, such as the Woodbine Formation, Navesink Formation,[14] Ellisdale Fossil Site,[15] Mooreville Chalk Formation, Demopolis Chalk Formation, Black Creek Group and the Niobrara Formation,[16] together with ongoing research in the area,[17] have given us a better look into this forgotten world of paleontology.

Geography[edit]

Appalachia stretched from Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador all the way down to the Eastern United States and west to the Midwestern United States. Fossils found in these regions indicate that the area was covered in coastal plains and coastal lowlands during the Cretaceous period.[18] Some scientists have proposed the idea that an archipelago of islands had formed during the time that the Western Interior Seaway had divided Laramidia and Appalachia apart until the near end of the Cretaceous. This would allow dinosaurs to migrate into the Gulf Coast and why it would possibly explain why there are some noticeable distinctions with the fauna in the two assemblages of Appalachia. For instance, the southeastern assemblage (which consists of the Carolinas and the Gulf Coast sites) has some tyrannosauroids such as Appalachiosaurus, some hadrosauroids such as Eotrachodon and Lophorhothon, nodosaurs, dromaeosaurs, and new leptoceratopsian while the northern assemblage (which consists of New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland) has some tyrannosauroids such as Dryptosaurus, hadrosauroids such as Hadrosaurus, smaller theropods, and a possible lambeosaur in the area.[19]

Range[edit]

Vertebrate fossils have been found along the Atlantic Seaboard as well as other states like Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota. Parts of Canada that were a part of Appalachia during the Cretaceous include, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nunavut, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia.[20][21][22]

Fauna[edit]

Dinosaurs[edit]

From the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, Appalachia was inhabited by various groups of dinosaurs including, hadrosauroids, hadrosaurs, nodosaurs, leptoceratopsians, indeterminate ornithopods, tyrannosauroids, dromaeosaurs, ornithomimids, and indeterminate maniraptors lived in the area. There is also fossil evidence of possible chasmosaurs, lambeosaurs, sauropods, carcharodontosaurs, caenagnathids, troodontids, and coelurosaurs that might have inhabited the area.[23][24][6][25][26] In 2022, fossils unearthed from the Woodbine Formation in Texas confirmed that carcharodontosaurs, troodontids, and coelurosaurs did indeed inhabit Appalachia.[27]

Tyrannosaurs[edit]

In Late Cretaceous North America, the dominant predators were the Tyrannosauroidea, huge predatory theropods built for ripping flesh from their prey. In Appalachia, dryptosaurs were the top predators in this clade. Rather than developing the huge heads and massive bodies of their western relatives such as Gorgosaurus, Albertosaurus and Lythronax,[28] dryptosaurs had more in common with the basal tyrannosaurs like Dilong and Eotyrannus. Dryptosaurs were characterized by long arms with three fingers;[29] while they were not as large as the largest tyrannosaurids, fossils from the Potomac Formation in New Jersey show that some of them did evolve some of the large-bodied features that can be found on other tyrannosaurs.[30] Three genera of valid Appalachian tyrannosaurs are known, Dryptosaurus, Appalachiosaurus, and the recently discovered Teihivenator while other indeterminate fossils lie scattered throughout most of the southern United States like Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Fossil foot bones from Appalachian deposits indicate another, unnamed tyrannosauroid measuring 9 m (30 ft), indicating that diversity in these basal tyrannosauroids remained high during the Late Cretaceous.[31] These fossilized teeth possibly belong to a species of Appalachiosaurus or an undescribed species of a new tyrannosaur.[32][33] There is also the possibility of a fourth tyrannosaur known from Applachia known as Diplotomodon, but the genus is considered dubious. Fossils from New Jersey and Delaware, most notably in the Mt. Laurel Formation and Merchantville Formations, have revealed that the primitive tyrannosauroids were much more diverse than expected, and some of them grew to lengths of 8 to 9 meters long, making them around the same size as some of the more advanced tyrannosaurs found in Laramidia.[31][34] Fossils in Cenomanian deposits further indicate tyrannosauroids had been a constant presence in Appalachia since the Middle Cretaceous.[35]

Dromaeosaurs[edit]

The dryptosaurs weren't the only predatory dinosaurs in Appalachia. Indeterminate dromaeosaur fossils, possibly belonging to Velociraptorinae and Saurornitholestinae, and teeth, most closely matching those of Saurornitholestes,[36] have also been unearthed in Appalachia as well; mostly in the southern states like Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.[37] Finds from the Campanian Tar Heel Formation in North Carolina indicate that there may have been dromaeosaurids of considerable size; intermediate between genera such as Saurornitholestes and Dakotaraptor. Though known only from teeth, the discovery indicates large dromaeosaurids were part of Appalachia's fauna.[38] Along with the dromaeosauridae remains, tyrannosauroidea and possible ornithomimid remains have been unearthed in Missouri as well.[39] It should also be noted that dromaeosaur remains are more commonly found in the southern region of Appalachia when compared to the northern region, with their sizes ranging from smaller forms to gigantic forms.[40] Recent fossils unearthed in New Jersey show that maniraptors were present in Appalachia as well.[41]

Ornithomimids[edit]

Various ornithomimid bones, such as Coelosaurus, have also been reported from Appalachia from Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and as far north in states like Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware, but it is now believed that some of these are the bones of juvenile dryptosaurs while others belong to various undescribed species of ornithomimids. As of 2019, no distinct species of ornithomimosaurs have been identified yet, mostly due to the fact that no complete skeleton has been unearthed yet. However, it can be assumed that most of them were around the same size of their Laramidian relatives, though there is one specimen that could have reached a large size similar to Gallimimus or Beishanlong.[42][43][39][44] In 2022, fossils from the Eutaw Formation from Mississippi revealed that large ornithomimids did indeed roam Appalachia.[45]

Other Theropods[edit]

Fossils from the Woodbine Formation in Texas, one of the few fossil sites which is one of Appalachia's more well preserved fossils, reveal that other theropods might have roamed Appalachia around the time when the Western Interior Seaway first formed, they include possible specimens of allosauroids, troodontids, caenagnathids, dromaeosaurs, and tyrannosaurs.[23][24]

Hadrosaurs[edit]

Another common group, arguably the most widespread species in the area,[46] of Appalachian dinosaurs were the hadrosaurs which were represented by three groups including Hadrosauromorpha, Hadrosauroidea, and the Hadrosauridae[47] which is now considered to be their "ancestral homeland"; eventually making their way to Laramidia, Asia,[48][49][50][51][52] Europe,[53][54] South America[55] and Antarctica[56] where they diversified into the lambeosaurine and saurolophine dinosaurs, though some of the primitive hadrosaurs[57] were still present until the end of the Mesozoic.[58][59][60][61] While the fossil record shows a staggering variety of hadrosaur forms in Laramidia, hadrosaur remains for Appalachia show less diversity due to the relative uncommon number of fossil beds. However, a decent number of hadrosaurs are known from Appalachia with Protohadros, Claosaurus, and Lophorhothon representing Hadrosauromorpha, Hypsibema crassicauda and Hypsibema missouriensis representing Hadrosauroidea, and Hadrosaurus and Eotrachodon representing Hadrosauridae. These hadrosaurs from Appalachia seem to be closely related to the crestless hadrosaurs of Laramidia like Gryposaurus and Edmontosaurus, despite the fact that they are not considered to be saurolophines. Claosaurus is known from a specimen which floated into the Interior Seaway and was found in Kansas, might also be from Appalachia, since it was found closer to the Appalachia side of the seaway and is unknown from Western North America. Hadrosaur remains have even been found in Iowa, though in fragmentary remains,[62] Tennessee, most notably from the Coon Creek Formation.[63][64] Hypsibema crassicauda,[65] over fifty feet long, was one of the largest eastern hadrosaurs, outgrowing some of more derived western hadrosaurs like Lambeosaurus and Saurolophus. The genus likely took the environmental niche occupied by large sauropods in other areas, possibly grown to colossal sizes to that of Magnapaulia[66] and Shantungosaurus.[67] Hypsibema missouriensis, was another large species of hadrosaur, but it grew up to 45 to 49 feet, which wasn't as large as Hypsibema crassicauda. When it was first discovered in 1945, it was mistaken for a species of sauropod.[68] Hypsibema missouriensis, possibly even all of the other hadrosaurs living on Appalachia, had serrated teeth for chewing the vegetation in the area.[69] Hadrosaur fossils from the Kanguk Formation in Axel Heiberg Island in Nunavut, Canada show that hadrosaurs were rather widespread throughout Appalachia. The fossils found in the Kanguk Formation also revealed the dietary preferences of hadrosaurs, which revealed that they had a diet of conifers, stems, twigs, and various deciduous plants.[70] In 2020, the remains of one small-bodied hadrosaur and two small-bodied hadrosauromorphs were unearthed in the New Egypt Formation in New Jersey. The fossils were dated to the Maastrichtian, which was the last stage of the Cretaceous period that ended with the extinction the dinosaurs. This information would imply that Appalachia probably had a rich diversity of life, but research will be need in order to get a better picture of this lost world.[71] In 2021, new remains of Hypsibema missouriensis, also known as Parrosaurus missouriensis, were unearthed in Missouri.[72][73][74]

Lambeosaurs[edit]

Indeterminate lambeosaurinae remains, mostly similar to Corythosaurus, have been reported from New Jersey's Navesink Formation, Bylot Island and Nova Scotia, Canada. It cannot yet be explained how lambeosaurines might have reached Appalachia though some have theorized that a land bridge must have formed sometime during the Campanian.[75] In 2020, a forelimb belonging to a lambeosaur was unearthed in the New Egypt Formation from New Jersey with evidence of sharks scavenging on its remains.[76]

Nodosaurs[edit]

The nodosaurids, a group of large, herbivorous armored dinosaurs resembling armadillos, are another testament to Appalachia's difference from Laramidia. During the early Cretaceous, the nodosaurids prospered and were one of the most widespread dinosaurs throughout North America. However, by the latest Cretaceous, nodosaurids were scarce in western North America,[77] limited to forms like Edmontonia, Denversaurus and Panoplosaurus; perhaps due to competition from the ankylosauridae; though they did thrive in isolation, most notably in Appalachia, as mentioned earlier and in the case of Struthiosaurus,[78] Europe as well. Nodosaurid scutes have been commonly found in eastern North America, while fossil specimens are very rare. Often the findings are not diagnostic enough to identify the species, but the remains attest to a greater number of these armored dinosaurs in Appalachia. Multiple specimens have been unearthed in Kansas[79] in the Niobrara Formation, Alabama in Ripley Formation,[80] Mississippi, Delaware, Maryland and New Jersey, possibly belonging to a multitude of different species.[81] Five possible and best-known examples of Appalachian nodosaurids, from both the early and late Cretaceous period, include Priconodon, Propanoplosaurus, Niobrarasaurus,[82][83] Silvisaurus[84] and possibly Hierosaurus,[85] though its validity is disputed. Just like the Claosaurus specimen, it is possible that the specimens of Niobrarasaurus, Silvisaurus and Hierosaurus floated into the Interior Seaway from the east, since these two species of nodosaurids were discovered in the famous chalk formations[86] of Kansas and are not known from any location from Western North America. Kansas was also a part of Appalachia when the other parts were covered by oceans, which were a part of the Western Interior Seaway.

Leptoceratopsians[edit]

While remains of the advanced ceratopsians, most notably the centrosaurines and chasmosaurines[87] which were very common in Laramidia during this time period, where not found in Appalachia, the leptoceratopsids somehow managed to inhabit that location.[88] A Campanian-era leptoceratopsid ceratopsian has been found in the Tar Heel Formation, marking the first discovery of a ceratopsian dinosaur in the Appalachian zone. This specimen bears a uniquely long, slender and downcurved upper jaw, suggesting that it was an animal with a specialized feeding strategy, yet another example of speciation on an island environment.[89] Recently, a ceratopsian teeth were unearthed in Mississippi's Owl Creek Formation,[90] which have been dated to be 67 million years old.[91] The owner of this one particular tooth was probably a chasmosaurine since by the end of the Cretaceous, the centrosaurines had completely vanished from North America, though they were thriving in Asia as in the case of Sinoceratops. While leptoceratopsid remains, the few that have been discovered in recent years, have been unearthed in the southern part of Appalachia, they appear to be completely absent from the northern part of Appalachia, states like New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. Suggesting the idea, proposed by paleontologist David R. Schwimmer, that there was a possible providence during the Late Cretaceous.[92] It is not completely understood how the leptoceratopsians were able to reach Appalachia, however, the most commonly accepted theory was that they island hopped during the time that the Western Interior Seaway split the North American continent into two different land masses in a way that some species of leptoceratopsids, most notably Ajkaceratops, were able to reach Europe.[93][94] It should also be noted that there is a distinct difference with how the leptoceratopsians evolved in Appalachia and Laramida. The Appalachian leptoceratopsian that was unearthed in the Tar Heel Formation, which grew to the size of a large dog, had a more slender jaw that teeth that curved downward and outward in its beak. This would imply a specialized feeding strategy for feeding on the foliage that was native to Appalachia during the Campanian.[95]

Birds[edit]

Several bird remains are known from Appalachian sites, most of them sea birds like Hesperornithes like Hesperornis, Canadaga, Baptornis, Fumicollis, Parahesperornis, and Ichthyornis, Enantiornithes like Halimornis and Ornithuraes like Apatornis and Iaceornis, possibly indicating that Appalachia might have had a diverse variety of birds that were endemic to the region. Of particular interest are possible lithornithid remains in New Jersey, arguably one of the best records[96] for Cretaceous birds[97] as some specimens were preserved in the greensands[98] in the area,[99][100] which would represent a clear example of palaeognath Neornithes in the Late Cretaceous. However, this issue is still under debate. Examples of birds that were endemic to Appalachia include a few groups such as the Charadriiformes, which consisted of Graculavus and Telmatornis, Anseriformes as represented by Anatalavis, Procellariiformes, with Tytthostonyx being one such example, and Palaeotringa and Laornis belonging to a currently unknown group of birds.[96] Hesperornithid fossils have also been unearthed in Arkansas.[101] Some birds found in Canada such as Tingmiatornis and Canadaga were found in areas that were a part of Appalachia.[102][103] Enantiornithine birds are also known from Appalachia, as is the case of Flexomornis from the Woodbine Formation from Texas.[104]

Non-dinosaur herpetofauna[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Through the Ellisdale Fossil Site, a good picture of Appalachia's non-dinosaurian fauna is present. Amidst lissamphibians, there is evidence for sirenids (including the large Habrosaurus), the batrachosauroidid salamander Parrisia, hylids, possible representatives of Eopelobates and Discoglossus, showing close similarities to European faunas, but aside from Habrosaurus (which is also found on Laramidia) there is a high degree of endemism, suggesting no interchanges with other landmasses throughout the Late Cretaceous.[105]

Lizards[edit]

There is also a high degree of endemism in regards to its reptilian fauna: among squamates, the teiid Prototeius is exclusive to the landmass, and native representatives of Iguanidae, Helodermatidae, and Necrosauridae.

No fossilized remains of snakes have been discovered in Appalachia during the Cretaceous period, only being found in Laramidia.[106]

Turtles[edit]

Amidst turtles, which are rather common finds in Appalachia, Adocus, Apalone, and Bothremys are well represented, the latter in particular more common in Appalachian sites than Laramidian ones. Pleurochayah, a bothremyid, is known from Texas.[107] In Santonian Alabama occurred the giant endemic Appalachemys.[108]

Crocodiles[edit]

Crocodiles were rather abundant in Appalachia with nine local crocodilian genera belonging to several confirmed families, with the possibility of much more undiscovered crocodiles waiting to be unearthed. Goniopholididae is represented by Dakotasuchus [109] and Woodbinesuchus,[110] Alligatoridae is represented by Bottosaurus,[111] Neosuchia is represented by Scolomastax[112] and Deltasuchus,[113] Alligatoroidea are presented Deinosuchus and Leidyosuchus, Gavialoidea are represented by Thoracosaurus,[114] Eothoracosaurus,[115] and Crocodilia is presented by Borealosuchus,[116] are well established in Laramidia as well, probably indicative of their ocean crossing capacities. Deinosuchus,[117] being one of the largest crocodilians of the fossil record,[118] was an apex predator that did prey on the dinosaurs[119][120][121] in the area, the same case applies for Laramidia as well,[122][123] despite the fact that the majority of its diet consisted of turtles[124] and sea turtles.[125][126] However, crocodiles still preyed on the endemic dinosaurs whenever they got the chance to do so; there is evidence of crocodile bite marks on the femur of large ornithomimosaur that indicates the predatory behavior of native crocodiles.[127] Fossils unearthed in South Carolina and New Jersey shows that some of the crocodilians endemic to Appalachia survived the extinction of the dinosaurs and even persisted into the Cenozoic.[128][129]

Dyrosauridae[edit]

Dyrosauridae, most notably Dyrosaurus and Hyposaurus fossils, are also known form Appalachia, particularly in New Jersey, Alabama, and South Carolina.[130]

Pholidosauridae[edit]

Only one species of Pholidosauridae is known to have lived in Appalachia; Terminonaris whose remains have been unearthed in Texas and Kansas.[131][132]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaur fossils, mostly similar to Pteranodon and Nyctosaurus, have been unearthed in Georgia,[133] Alabama[134] and Delaware.[135] On a similar note, azhdrachid remains, which belong to Arambourgiania,[136] have been unearthed in Tennessee.[137] There have been a number of specimens of pterosaurs unearthed in areas that were a part of Appalachia during the time that the Western Interior Seaway had divided North America into two landmasses. Fossils of Appalachian pterosaurs have also been unearthed in Kansas and Texas.[138][139][140][141] Pteranodontidae seem the most common groups of pterosaurs in Appalachia and represented by five species: Pteranodon, Nyctosaurus, Geosternbergia, Dawndraco, and Alamodactylus.[142] Members of the Ornithocheiridae and Anhangueridae are represented by Aetodactylus and Cimoliopterus respectively.[143]

Choristodera[edit]

The remains of indetermine choristoderans have turned up in the Navesink Formation; the only known genus of choristodere during the Late Cretaceous was Champsosaurus.[144] As a whole Appalachian choristodere fossils are very rare, speculated to the result of the lack of a suitable cold freshwater environment as seen in Laramidia at similar latitudes; the animals are speculated to have been more common at higher latitudes and altitudes.[144]

Mammals[edit]

Several types of mammals[145] are also present in Ellisdale and in both of the Carolinas.[146] The most common are ptilodontoidean multituberculates, such as Mesodma, Cimolodon and a massively-sized species. The sheer diversity of species on the landmass, as well as the earlier appearance compared to other Late Cretaceous locales, suggests that ptilodontoideans evolved in Appalachia.[147][148] Metatherians are also known, including an alphadontid,[148] a stagodontid,[149] and a herpetotheriid.[150] Unlike ptilodontoideans, metatherians show a lesser degree of endemism, implying a degree of interchange with Laramidia and Europe. Research in this area has revealed that theTaeniolabidoidea mammals can trace their origins here and that there were several species of multituberculates endemic to Appalachia.[151] Eutheria fossils, most notably molars, have also been unearthed in Mississippi. It is possible that they belong to a creature rather reminiscent to Protungulatum.[152] The genus Alphadon as well as other members of the Allotheria family have had their remains unearthed in New Jersey.[153]

Marine life[edit]

While not much was known about Appalachia's land-based fauna until recently, the marine life that in the area, as well as the life that lived in the nearby Western Interior Seaway, has been well studied by paleontologists for years. Such examples of fossil sites that have preserved the remains of marine life from that period include the Niobrara Formation, the Demopolis Chalk Formation, and the Mooreville Chalk Formation are just a few examples of the fossil sites that have successfully preserved the skeletal remains of various marine creatures from the Cretaceous.[154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161] Examples of the marine fauna that lived near Appalachia include Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Chelonioidea, Plesiosaurs, and Mosasaurs, which were the apex predators of their environment at the time.[162][163]

Mosasaur remains have even been unearthed in Missouri.[164]

Plesiosaur fossils, belonging to the genus Cimoliasaurus, have been unearthed in New Jersey.[165]

Fish fossils are rather common throughout Appalachia, especially in locations abundant in marl, shale, and limestone.[166][167] Fish fossils, as well as a lot of Cretaceous era marine fauna, are rather abundant in regions like the Niobrara Formation in Kansas, which is made up of shale, sandstone and limestone, as well as the Woodbury Formation in New Jersey.[168][169]

Arthropods[edit]

Many species of arthropods are known from the Turonian aged New Jersey amber, situated on the Atlantic coast of Appalachia. Arthropods are also known from the Cenomanian aged Redmond Formation of Labrador, Canada.

Flora[edit]

While the fossil sites from the southern part in Appalachia, places like Alabama and the Carolinas, have a very scant amount of Cretaceous plant fossils with the exception of Georgia, the northern parts of Appalachia, such as New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware have a much better record in terms of plant species being unearthed there, especially with fossils sites like the Ellisdale Fossil Site, and have given us a better glimpse into a forgotten world. In the Ellisdae Fossil Site, excavations have revealed that plants like Picea, Metasequoia, Liriodendron, and possibly Rhizophora inhabited the region during the late Cretaceous period, implying that the environment during that time period was a coastal forest with a few types of marine environments as well including estuarine, lagoonal, marine, and terrestrial. Plant fossils found in neighboring states such as Delaware and Maryland have revealed that ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms did indeed inhabit the area.[170] Angiosperm fossils were unearthed in the Dakota Formation in Nebraska.[171] As mentioned earlier, Georgia has a rich fossil record of plant life dating back to the Cretaceous. Some of the examples of flora that was present in that area include Salicaceae, Lauraceae, Sequoioideae, Moraceae, Pinophyta, Malpighiales, Monocotyledon, Ericaceae, Cinnamomum, Ranunculales, Salicaceae, Torreya, Cupressaceae, Magnoliaceae and Rhamnaceae.[172] Plant fossils of Minnesota have revealed that cycads, evergreens, Equisetum, laurels, ferns, willows, redwoods, poplars, tulip trees, and pomegranates were present in the area during the Cretaceous.[173] There is also a huge concentration of Normapolles unearthed in the southeastern United States, suggesting that there was a distinct phytogeography through the area during the Cretaceous.[174]

Fossils unearthed near from the Redmond Formation in Labrador have revealed that many of the modern-day angiosperms first appeared in Appalachia.[175] Plant fossils found in Crawford County, Georgia show a wide variety of plant diversity such as sporophytes, gametophytes, Detrusandra, Hamamelidaceae, Actinidiaceae, and a multitude of 63 species of plants have been unearthed in this region.[176] Angiosperm plants have been found in the Woodbine Formation.[177] Pinaceae and Lauraceae fossils have been unearthed in Mississippi and North Carolina respectively.[178][179]

Plant fossils found in Massachusetts and Rhode Island indicate that the climate here was sub-humid and paratropical too, indicating that some of Appalachia's habitats largely consisted of coastal plains and deciduous forests.[180] Plants of Pinaceae, Taxodioideae, Araucariaceae, Taxaceae, Cycas and Thallophyte have been found in Georgia and South Carolina.[181]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nielsen, Karsten Schjødt; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Leckie, Dale A.; Haggart, James W.; Elberdak, Khalifa (December 2008). "Turonian to Santonian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cretaceous Western Interior Sea: The Carlile and Niobrara formations in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 270 (1–2): 64–91. Bibcode:2008PPP...270...64N. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.08.018.
  2. ^ Bertog, Janet (2010). "Stratigraphy of the Lower Pierre Shale (Campanian): Implications for the Tectonic and Eustatic Controls on Facies Distributions". Journal of Geological Research. 2010: 1–15. doi:10.1155/2010/910243.
  3. ^ Erickson, J. Mark (December 1999). "The Dakota Isthmus – Closing the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway". North Dakota Academy of Science Proceedings. 53: 124–129. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  4. ^ Weishampel, David B.; Young, Luther (1996). Dinosaurs of the East Coast. Baltimore, MD.: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801852169.
  5. ^ Stanley, Steven M. (1999). Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 487–489. ISBN 978-0-7167-2882-5.
  6. ^ a b Brownstein, Chase D. (February 2018). "The biogeography and ecology of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs of Appalachia". Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1.5A): 1–56. doi:10.26879/801.
  7. ^ Liu, Lijun (15 June 2014). "Rejuvenation of Appalachian topography caused by subsidence-induced differential erosion". Nature Geoscience. 7 (7): 518–523. Bibcode:2014NatGe...7..518L. doi:10.1038/ngeo2187. ISSN 1752-0894.
  8. ^ Braun, Duane D. (September 1989). "Glacial and periglacial erosion of the Appalachians". Geomorphology. 2 (1–3): 233–256. Bibcode:1989Geomo...2..233B. doi:10.1016/0169-555X(89)90014-7.
  9. ^ Uren, Adam. "Dinosaurs in Minnesota: Fossil claw found in Iron Range has scientists excited". Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  10. ^ Sawyer, Liz. "Fossil adds to evidence of dinosaurs in Minnesota". Star Tribune. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Fossil finds behind N.J. strip mall causing excitement". CBS Evening News. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  12. ^ Anonymous. "Rare fossil of a horned dinosaur found from 'lost continent'". University of Bath News. University of Bath. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  13. ^ Anderson, Natali. "Eotrachodon orientalis: New Duck-Billed Dinosaur Species Discovered". Science News.com. Science News. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  14. ^ Kennedy, William J.; Landman, Neil H.; Cobban, William Aubrey; Johnson, R.O. (13 December 2000). "Additions to the ammonite fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Navesink Formation of New Jersey". American Museum Novitates: 31. hdl:2246/2008.
  15. ^ Gallagher, W.B. (1997). When Dinosaurs Roamed New Jersey. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813523484.
  16. ^ "Oceans of Kansas".
  17. ^ Brownstein, Chase (17 January 2018). "The biogeography and ecology of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs of Appalachia". Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1.5a): 1–56. doi:10.26879/801.
  18. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (February 2018). "The biogeography and ecology of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs of Appalachia". Palaeontologia Electronica. 21 (1): 1–56. doi:10.26879/801.
  19. ^ Schwimmer, David R. (1 April 2016). "Was There a Southeastern Dinosaur Province in the Late Cretaceous?". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 48 (3): 22–3. doi:10.1130/abs/2016SE-271634.
  20. ^ King, David T. Jr. "Late Cretaceous Dinosaurs of the Southeastern United States". auburn.edu. Auburn University. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  21. ^ http://webhome.auburn.edu/~kingdat/dino_fig_1.jpg. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ http://webhome.auburn.edu/~kingdat/dino_fig_2.jpg. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ a b Adams, Thomas (13 March 2017). "New Data on Mid- Cretaceous Ecosystems and Faunal Diversity in Appalachia: Insights from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of North Texas". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 49 (1). doi:10.1130/abs/2017SC-289203.
  24. ^ a b Drumheller, Stephanie K. (13 April 2018). "Fleshing Out a Lost World: Mid-Cretaceous Diversity in Appalachia with Insights from the Arlington Archosaur Site". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 50 (3). doi:10.1130/abs/2018SE-312397.
  25. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (November 2017). "A Tyrannosauroid Metatarsus from the Merchantville Formation of New Jersey increases the diversity of nonTyrannosaurid Tyrannosauroids on Appalachia". PeerJ. 5 (e4123): e4123. doi:10.7717/peerj.4123. PMC 5712462. PMID 29204326.
  26. ^ King, James L. (18 October 2009). "DINOSAURIAN FAUNA OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 41 (7): 106. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  27. ^ Noto, Christopher R.; D’Amore, Domenic C.; Drumheller, Stephanie K.; Adams, Thomas L. (25 January 2022). "A newly recognized theropod assemblage from the Lewisville Formation (Woodbine Group; Cenomanian) and its implications for understanding Late Cretaceous Appalachian terrestrial ecosystems". PeerJ. 10: e12782. doi:10.7717/peerj.12782. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 8796713. PMID 35127286.
  28. ^ Loewen, Mark A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Setrich, Joseph J. W.; J. Currie, Philip; D. Sampson, Scott (6 November 2013). "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): 14. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...879420L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. PMC 3819173. PMID 24223179.
  29. ^ Switek, Brian (2011). "Dryptosaurus' Surprising Hands". American Museum Novitates (3717): 1–53. doi:10.1206/3717.2. hdl:20.500.11820/6aec2625-02e3-4c0f-bb39-6159c51f97b6. S2CID 53318615. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  30. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (17 April 2018). "A Tyrannosauroid from the Lower Cenomanian of New Jersey and Its Evolutionary and Biogeographic Implications". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 59 (1): 95–106. doi:10.3374/014.058.0210. S2CID 90633156.
  31. ^ a b Brownstein, Chase (December 2018). "LARGE BASAL TYRANNOSAUROIDS FROM THE MAASTRICHTIAN AND TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY IN THE SHADOW OF THE K-PG EXTINCTION". The Mosasaur. X: 105–110. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  32. ^ Chan-gyu, Yun (2017). "Teihivenator gen. nov., a new generic name for the Tyrannosauroid Dinosaur "Laelaps" macropus (Cope, 1868; preoccupied by Koch, 1836)". Journal of Zoological and Bioscience Research. 4. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  33. ^ Carr, Thomas D; Williamson, Thomas E; Schwimmer, David R (2005). "A new genus and species of tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous (Middle Campanian) Demopolis Formation of Alabama". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25: 119–43. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0119:ANGASO]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 86243316.
  34. ^ Brownstein, Chase (30 November 2017). "A tyrannosauroid metatarsus from the Merchantville Formation of Delaware increases the diversity of non-tyrannosaurid tyrannosauroids on Appalachia". PeerJ. 5 (e4123): e4123. doi:10.7717/peerj.4123. PMC 5712462. PMID 29204326.
  35. ^ Brownstein, Chase Doran (2018). "A Tyrannosauroid from the Lower Cenomanian of New Jersey and Its Evolutionary and Biogeographic Implications". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 59: 95–105. doi:10.3374/014.058.0210. S2CID 90633156.
  36. ^ Kiernan, Caitlin R.; Schwimmeri, David R. (January 2004). "First Record of a Velociraptorine Theropod (Tetanurae, Dromaeosauridae) from the Eastern Gulf Coastal United States". The Mosasaur. 7: 89–93. Retrieved 7 May 2004.
  37. ^ Westfall, Aundrea. "Dromaeosaurs". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  38. ^ Brownstein, Chase (2018). "A giant dromaeosaurid from North Carolina". Cretaceous Research. 92: 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.07.006. S2CID 135459468.
  39. ^ a b Fix, Michael F. "Dinosauria and Associated Vertebrate Fauna of the Late Cretaceous Chronister Site of Southeast Missouri". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 1 April 2004.
  40. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (5 April 2018). "Diversity of raptor dinosaurs in southeastern North America revealed by the first definite record from North Carolina". PeerJ Preprints: 1–19. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.26829v1. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  41. ^ Brownstein, Chase Doran (1 November 2019). "New records of theropods from the latest Cretaceous of New Jersey and the Maastrichtian Appalachian fauna". Royal Society Open Science. 6 (11): 191206. Bibcode:2019RSOS....691206B. doi:10.1098/rsos.191206. PMC 6894593. PMID 31827856.
  42. ^ Baird, D.; Horner, J. (1979). "Cretaceous dinosaurs of North Carolina". Brimleyana. 2: 1–28.
  43. ^ Brownstein, C.D. (24 July 2017). "Theropod specimens from the Navesink Formation and their implications for the Diversity and Biogeography of Ornithomimosaurs and Tyrannosauroids on Appalachia". PeerJ Preprints. 5: e3105v1. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3105v1.
  44. ^ Brownstein, Chase Doran (24 July 2017). "Theropod specimens from the Navesink Formation and their implications for the Diversity and Biogeography of Ornithomimosaurs and Tyrannosauroids on Appalachia". PeerJ Preprints. e3105v1. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  45. ^ Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Cullen, Thomas; Phillips, George; Rolke, Richard; Zanno, Lindsay E. (25 March 2022). "Large-bodied ornithomimosaurs inhabited Appalachia during the Late Cretaceous of North America": 2022.03.25.485782. doi:10.1101/2022.03.25.485782. S2CID 247749395. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  46. ^ King, David T. Jr. "Late Cretaceous Dinosaurs of the Southeastern United States". aubrun.edu. Auburn University Press. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  47. ^ Colbert, Edwin H. (1948). "A Hadrosaurian Dinosaur from New Jersey". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 100: 23–37. JSTOR 4064414.
  48. ^ Godefroit, P.; Bolotsky, Y. L.; Lauters, P. (2012). Joger, Ulrich (ed.). "A New Saurolophine Dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of Far Eastern Russia". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e36849. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736849G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036849. PMC 3364265. PMID 22666331.
  49. ^ Godefroit, Pascal; Bolotsky, Yuri; Alifanov, Vladimir (2003). "A remarkable hollow-crested hadrosaur from Russia: an Asian origin for lambeosaurines" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2 (2): 143–151. doi:10.1016/S1631-0683(03)00017-4.
  50. ^ Godefroit, Pascal; Shuqin Zan; Liyong Jin (2000). "Charonosaurus jiayinensis n. g., n. sp., a lambeosaurine dinosaur from the Late Maastrichtian of northeastern China" (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série IIA. 330 (12): 875–882. Bibcode:2000CRASE.330..875G. doi:10.1016/S1251-8050(00)00214-7.
  51. ^ Bolotsky, Y.L. & Kurzanov, S.K. 1991. [The hadrosaurs of the Amur Region.] In: [Geology of the Pacific Ocean Border]. Blagoveschensk: Amur KNII. 94-103. [In Russian]
  52. ^ Godefroit, P.; Bolotsky, Y. L.; Van Itterbeeck, J. (2004). "The lambeosaurine dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Maastrichtian of Far Eastern Russia". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 49 (4): 585–618.
  53. ^ Casanovas, M.L; Pereda-Suberbiola, X.; Santafé, J.V.; Weishampel, D.B. (1999). "First lambeosaurine hadrosaurid from Europe: palaeobiogeographical implications". Geological Magazine. 136 (2): 205–211. Bibcode:1999GeoM..136..205C. doi:10.1017/s0016756899002319. S2CID 128603347.
  54. ^ Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; José Ignacio Canudo; Penélope Cruzado-Caballero; José Luis Barco; Nieves López-Martínez; Oriol Oms; José Ignacio Ruiz-Omeñaca (2009). "The last hadrosaurid dinosaurs of Europe: A new lambeosaurine from the Uppermost Cretaceous of Aren (Huesca, Spain)" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Palevol. 8 (6): 559–572. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2009.05.002.
  55. ^ Rubén D. Juárez Valieri; José A. Haro; Lucas E. Fiorelli; Jorge O. Calvo (2010). "A new hadrosauroid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Allen Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. New Series. 11 (2): 217–231. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  56. ^ Case, Judd A.; Martin, James E.; Chaney, Dan S.; Regurero, Marcelo; Marenssi, Sergio A.; Santillana, Sergio M.; Woodburne, Michael O. (25 September 2000). "The First Duck-Billed Dinosaur (Family Hadrosauridae) from Antarctica". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20 (3): 612–614. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2000)020[0612:tfdbdf]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 4524132. S2CID 131243139.
  57. ^ Dalla Vecchia, F. M. (2009). "Tethyshadros insularis, a new hadrosauroid dinosaur (Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Italy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (4): 1100–1116. doi:10.1671/039.029.0428. S2CID 198128196.
  58. ^ Lund, Eric K.; Gates, Terry A. (January 2006). "A Historical and Biogeographical Examination of Hadrosaurian Dinosaurs". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  59. ^ Kaye, John M.; Russell, Dale. (1973). "The oldest record of hadrosaurian dinosaurs in North America". Journal of Paleontology: 91–93.
  60. ^ "Research team identifies rare dinosaur from Appalachia". 21 January 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  61. ^ Lull, Richard S.; Wright, Nelda E. (1942). "Hadrosaurian dinosaurs of North America". Geological Society of America Special Papers. Vol. 40. Geological Society of America. pp. 1–272. doi:10.1130/SPE40-p1. ISBN 9780813720401.
  62. ^ Witzke, Brian J. (12 August 2014). "Dinosaurs in Iowa". Iowa Geological Society. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  63. ^ Byran, Jonathan R.; Frederick, Daniel L.; Schwimmer, David R.; Siesser, William G. (July 1991). "First dinosaur record from Tennessee: a Campanian hadrosaur". Journal of Paleontology. 65 (4): 696–697. doi:10.1017/S0022336000030808. S2CID 131235991. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  64. ^ Markin, Walter L.; Gibson, Michael A. (3 November 2010). "Discovery of a Second Hadrosaur From the Late Cretaceous Coon Creek Formation, West Tennessee". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 42 (5): 631.
  65. ^ Cope, E.D. (1869). "Remarks on Eschrichtius polyporus, Hypsibema crassicauda, Hadrosaurus tripos, and Polydectes biturgidus". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 21: 191–192.
  66. ^ Albert, Prieto-Marquez; Luis, M. Chiappe; Shantanu, H. Joshi (12 June 2012). "The Lambeosaurine Dinosaur Magnapaulia laticaudus from the Late Cretaceous of Baja California, Northwestern Mexico". PLOS ONE. 7 (6): 29. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...738207P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038207. PMC 3373519. PMID 22719869.
  67. ^ Chase (22 June 2015). "Antediluvian Beasts of the East: Hypsibema crassicauda". thetetanuraeguy.wordpress.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  68. ^ Gilmore, Charles W.; Stewart, Dan R. (January 1945). "A New Sauropod Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Missouri". Journal of Paleontology. 19 (1): 23–29. JSTOR 1299165.
  69. ^ "Welcome to the Fossil Prep Lab!". Bollinger County Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  70. ^ VAVREK, MATTHEW J.; HILLS, LEN V.; CURRIE, PHILIP J. (2014). "A Hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Kanguk Formation of Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, and Its Ecological and Geographical Implications". Arctic. 67 (1): 1–9. doi:10.14430/arctic4362. JSTOR 24363716. S2CID 55810951.
  71. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (1 January 2021). "Osteology and phylogeny of small-bodied hadrosauromorphs from an end-Cretaceous marine assemblage". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 191 (1): 180–200. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa085. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  72. ^ Snider, Mike. "Show-Me-a-saurus! Skeleton of a new type of dinosaur unearthed in Missouri". USA TODAY. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  73. ^ Sherry Liang. "Missouri dig site is home to at least 4 rare dinosaurs, and there could be more". CNN. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  74. ^ "Remains of 30ft duck-billed dinosaur unearthed in Missouri". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  75. ^ Chase (30 July 2015). "A response to The Tetrapod Zoology Podcast #45: Why Lambeosaurines did, in fact, persist into the Maastrichtian". An Odyssey of Time. Anonymous. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  76. ^ Brownstein, Chase D.; Bissell, Immanuel (2020). "An elongate hadrosaurid forelimb with biological traces informs the biogeography of the Lambeosaurinae" (PDF). Journal of Paleontology. 95 (2): 367–375. doi:10.1017/jpa.2020.83. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  77. ^ Bakker, Robert T. (1988). "Review of the Late Cretaceous nodosauroid Dinosauria: Denversaurus schlessmani, a new armor-plated dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of South Dakota, the last survivor of the nodosaurians, with comments on Stegosaur-Nodosaur relationships". Hunteria. 1 (3): 1–23.
  78. ^ Garcia, G.; Pereda-Suberbiola, X. (2003). "A new species of Struthiosaurus (Dinosauria: Ankylosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Villeveyrac (southern France)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23 (1): 156–165. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2003)23[156:ansosd]2.0.co;2. S2CID 140174401.
  79. ^ "Approximate location of Smoky Hill Chalk nodosaur remains". Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  80. ^ Bruns, Michael E. "New Appalachian Armored Dinosaur Material (Nodosauridae, Ankylosauria) From the Maastrichtian Ripley Formation of Alabama". The Geological Society of America. The Geological Society of America. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  81. ^ Ebersole, Jun. "Nodosaur". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  82. ^ Everhart, Michael J.; Hamm, Shawn A. (January 2005). "A new nodosaur specimen (Dinosauria: Nodosauridae) from the Smoky Hill Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 108 (1&2): 15–21. doi:10.1660/0022-8443(2005)108[0015:ANNSDN]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 86252250.
  83. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth; Everhart, Michael J. (April 2007). "Skull of the ankylosaur Niobrarasaurus coleu (Ankylosauria: Nodosauridae) from the Smoky Hill Chalk (Coniacian) of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 110 (1 & 2): 1–9. doi:10.1660/0022-8443(2007)110[1:SOTANC]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 86282946.
  84. ^ Eaton, T. H. Jr. (1960). "A new armored dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Kansas". The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions: Vertebrata. 8: 1–24. hdl:1808/3799.
  85. ^ Wieland, G. R (1909). "A new armored saurian from the Niobrara". American Journal of Science. 27 (159): 250–2. Bibcode:1909AmJS...27..250W. doi:10.2475/ajs.s4-27.159.250.
  86. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth; Dilkes, David; Weishampel, Dave (June 1995). "The Dinosaurs of the Niobrara Chalk Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Kansas)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15 (2): 275–297. doi:10.1080/02724634.1995.10011230.
  87. ^ "Amazing horned dinosaurs unearthed on 'lost continent'; New discoveries include bizarre beast with 15 horns". ScienceDaily. University of Utah. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  88. ^ Anonymous (14 September 2015). "A new Leptoceratopsid Ceratopsian From Campanian Cretaceous Appalachia". The Dragon's Tales. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  89. ^ Longrich, Nicholas R. (2016). "A ceratopsian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of eastern North America, and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research. 57: 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.08.004.
  90. ^ Brantley, Mary Grace. "Paleontologists make big dinosaur discovery in Mississippi". MSNewsNow. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  91. ^ Fleet, Micah (29 July 2016). "Rare dinosaur tooth found in Mississippi". wapt.com. 16 WAPT News. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  92. ^ David R., Schwimmer. "Was There a Southeastern Dinosaur Province in the Late Cretaceous?". 1 April 2016. Geological Society of America. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  93. ^ Osi, Attila; Butler, Richard J.; Weishampel, David B. (27 May 2010). "A Late Cretaceous ceratopsian dinosaur from Europe with Asian affinities". Nature. 465 (7297): 466–468. Bibcode:2010Natur.465..466O. doi:10.1038/nature09019. PMID 20505726. S2CID 205220451.
  94. ^ LINDGREN, JOHAN; CURRIE, PHILIP J.; SIVERSON, MIKAEL; REESS, JAN; LINDGREN, FILIP (2007). "The First Neoceratopsian Dinosaur Remains from Europe". Palaeontology. 50 (4): 929–937. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00690.x. S2CID 129733977.
  95. ^ Longrich, Nicholas (January 2016). "A ceratopsian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of eastern North America, and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research. 57: 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.08.004.
  96. ^ a b Olson, Storrs L.; Parris, David C. (1987). "The Cretaceous Birds of New Jersey" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 63 (63): 1–25. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.63.1.
  97. ^ Wetmore, Alexander (April 1930). "The Age of the Supposed Cretaceous Birds from New Jersey". The Auk. 47 (2): 186–188. doi:10.2307/4075921. JSTOR 4075921. S2CID 87807904.
  98. ^ Baird, Donald (April 1967). "Age of Fossil Birds from the Greensands of New Jersey". The Auk. 84 (2): 260–262. doi:10.2307/4083191. JSTOR 4083191.
  99. ^ Palaeogene Fossil Birds
  100. ^ A lithornithid (Aves: Palaeognathae) from the Paleocene (Tiffanian) of southern California
  101. ^ Bell, Alyssa; Irwin, Kelly J.; Davis, Leo Carson (September 2015). "Hesperornithiform Birds from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Arkansas, USA". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 118 (3 & 4): 219–229. doi:10.1660/062.118.0305. S2CID 83921936. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  102. ^ Bono, R.K.; Clarke, J.; Tarduno, J.A.; Brinkman, Donald (2016). "A Large Ornithurine Bird (Tingmiatornis arctica) from the Turonian High Arctic: Climatic and Evolutionary Implications". Scientific Reports. 6: 38876. Bibcode:2016NatSR...638876B. doi:10.1038/srep38876. PMC 5171645. PMID 27991515.
  103. ^ Hou (1999). "New hesperornithid (Aves) from the Canadian Arctic". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 37 (7): 228–233.
  104. ^ TYKOSKI, RONALD S.; FIORILLO, ANTHONY R. (January 2010). "An enantiornithine bird from the lower middle Cenomanian of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30: 288–292. doi:10.1080/02724630903416068. S2CID 84037461. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  105. ^ Le Loeuff, J (1991). "The Campano-Maastrichtian vertebrate faunas of southern Europe and their relationship with other faunas in the world; paleobiogeographic implications". Cretaceous Res. 12 (2): 93–114. doi:10.1016/s0195-6671(05)80019-9.
  106. ^ Holman, J. Alan (22 May 2000). Fossil Snakes of North America: Origin, Evolution, Distribution, Paleoecology. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 376.
  107. ^ Adrian, Brent; Smith, Heather F.; Noto, Christopher R.; Grossman, Aryeh (20 May 2021). "An early bothremydid from the Arlington Archosaur Site of Texas". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 9555. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88905-1. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8137945. PMID 34017016.
  108. ^ Gentry, A. D.; Kiernan, C. R.; Parham, J. F. (2022). "A large non-marine turtle from the Upper Cretaceous of Alabama and a review of North American "Macrobaenids"". The Anatomical Record. doi:10.1002/ar.25054. S2CID 251698645.
  109. ^ Vaughn, Peter Paul (1956). "A Second Specimen of the Cretaceous Crocodile Dakotasuchus from Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 59 (3): 379–381. doi:10.2307/3626613. ISSN 0022-8443. JSTOR 3626613.
  110. ^ Lee, Yuong–Nam (1997). "The Archosauria from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) in Texas". Journal of Paleontology. 71 (6): 1147–1156. doi:10.1017/S0022336000036088. S2CID 131923994.
  111. ^ Cossette, Adam P.; Brochu, Christopher A. (2018). "A new specimen of the alligatoroid Bottosaurus harlani and the early history of character evolution in alligatorids". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 38 (4): (1)-(22). doi:10.1080/02724634.2018.1486321. S2CID 92801257.
  112. ^ Adams, Thomas L.; Noto, Christopher R.; Drumheller, Stephanie K (25 September 2018). "A large neosuchian crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of North Texas". dx.doi.org. doi:10.31233/osf.io/2ck7v. S2CID 240215516. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  113. ^ Adams, T.L.; Noto, C.R.; Drumheller, S. (2017). "A large neosuchian crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of North Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 37 (4): e1349776. doi:10.1080/02724634.2017.1349776. S2CID 133647239.
  114. ^ Troxell, Edward L. (September 1925). "Thoracosaurus, A Cretaceous Crocodile". American Journal of Science. 5 (10): 219–233. Bibcode:1925AmJS...10..219T. doi:10.2475/ajs.s5-10.57.219.
  115. ^ Brochu, Christopher A. (5 January 2004). "A new Late Cretaceous gavialoid crocodylian from eastern North America and the phylogenetic relationships of thoracosaurs" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24 (3): 610–633. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2004)024[0610:ANLCGC]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 131176447.
  116. ^ Brochu, Christopher A.; Parris, David C.; Grandstaff, Barbara Smith; Denton Jr., Robert K.; Gallagher, William B. (12 January 2012). "A new species of Borealosuchus (Crocodyliformes, Eusuchia) from the Late Cretaceous–early Paleogene of New Jersey". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (1): 105–116. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.633585. S2CID 83931184.
  117. ^ Schwimmer, David R. (12 June 2002). King of the Crocodylians: The Paleobiology of Deinosuchus. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 240.
  118. ^ Erickson, Gregory M.; Brochu, Christopher A. (18 June 1999). "How the 'terror crocodile' grew so big" (PDF). Nature. 398 (6724): 205–206. Bibcode:1999Natur.398..205E. doi:10.1038/18343. S2CID 4402210.
  119. ^ Handwerk, Brian (25 March 2010). "Feces, Bite Marks Flesh Out Giant Dino-Eating Crocs". National Geographic News. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  120. ^ Cossette, A; Brochu, C (4 November 2020). "A systematic review of the giant alligatoroid Deinosuchus from the Campanian of North America and its implications for the relationships at the root of Crocodylia (project)". MorphoBank datasets. doi:10.7934/p3782. S2CID 225240071. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  121. ^ Brownstein, Chase Doran (1 April 2019). "First Record of a Small Juvenile Giant Crocodyliform and its Ontogenetic and Biogeographic Implications". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 60 (1): 81. doi:10.3374/014.060.0104. ISSN 0079-032X. S2CID 133563223.
  122. ^ RIVERA-SYLVA, Héctor E.; FREY, Eberhard; GUZMÁN-GUTIÉRREZ, José Rubén (2009). "Evidence of predation on the vertebra of a hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) of Coahuila, Mexico". Carnets de Géologie: 1–7. Archived from the original on 28 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  123. ^ Rivera-Sylva, Hector E.; W.E. Hone, David; Dodson, Peter (2012). "Bite marks of a large theropod on an hadrosaur limb bone from Coahuila, Mexico" (PDF). 64 (1): 157–161. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  124. ^ Milan, J; Lucas, Spencer G.; Lockley, M G; Schwimmer, David R. (January 2010). "Bite Marks of the Giant Crocodylian Deinosuchus on Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Bones". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 51: 183–190.
  125. ^ Harrell, Samantha D.; Schwimmer, David R. (2010). "Coprolites of Deinosuchus and other crocodylians from the Upper Cretaceous of western Georgia, USA": 1–7. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  126. ^ R., Schwimmer, David (2002). King of the crocodylians : the paleobiology of Deinosuchus. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34087-X. OCLC 488797149.
  127. ^ Brownstein, Chase D. (11 June 2018). "Trace fossils on dinosaur bones reveal ecosystem dynamics along the coast of eastern North America during the latest Cretaceous". PeerJ. 6: 23. doi:10.7717/peerj.4973. PMC 6001717. PMID 29910985.
  128. ^ Erickson, Bruce (1998). "Crocodilians of the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) of the South Carolina Coastal Plain". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 88 (4): 196–214. doi:10.2307/1006674. JSTOR 1006674.
  129. ^ Cossette, Adam; Christopher, Christopher (3 April 2019). "A new specimen of the alligatoroid Bottosaurus harlani and the early history of character evolution in alligatorids". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 38 (4): (1)-(22). doi:10.1080/02724634.2018.1486321. S2CID 92801257.
  130. ^ Callahan, Wayne; Pellegrini, Rodrigo; Schein, Jason; Parris, David C. (January 2015). "A Nearly Complete Specimen of Hyposaurus Rogersii (Crocodylomorpha, Dyrosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene of New Jersey". Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2253.2724. Retrieved 4 January 2019. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  131. ^ Adams, Thomas L.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Mateus, Octavio; Winkler, Dale A.; Jacobs, Louis L. (May 2011). "First occurrence of the long-snouted crocodyliform Terminonaris (Pholidosauridae) from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (3): 712–716. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.572938. S2CID 86061260.
  132. ^ Shimada, Kenshu; Parris, David C. (Spring 2007). "A Long-Snouted Late Cretaceous Crocodyliform, Terminonaris cf. T. browni, from the Carlile Shale (Turonian) of Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 110 (1/2): 107–115. doi:10.1660/0022-8443(2007)110[107:ALLCCT]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 20476300. S2CID 86273062.
  133. ^ Schwimmer, David R.; Padian, Kevin; Woodhead, Alfred B. (1985). "First Pterosaur Records from Georgia: Open Marine Facies, Eutaw Formation (Santonian)". Journal of Paleontology. 59 (3): 674–676. JSTOR 1304987.
  134. ^ Westfall, Aundrea. "Pterosaurs". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  135. ^ Bairid, Donald; Galton, Peter M. (1981). "Pterosaur Bones from the Upper Cretaceous of Delaware". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1080/02724634.1981.10011880. JSTOR 4522837.
  136. ^ Harrell, T. Lynn Jr.; Gibson, Michael A.; Langston, Wann Jr. (1 December 2016). "A cervical vertebra of Arambourgiania philadelphiae (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the late Campanian micaceous facies of the Coon Creek Formation in McNairy County, Tennessee, USA". Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 33: 94–103.
  137. ^ Gibson, Michael A. "Review of Vertebrate Diversity n the Coon Creek Formation Lagerstätte (Late Cretaceous) of Western Tennessee". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  138. ^ S. Bennett, Christopher (February 1992). "Sexual dimorphism of Pteranodon and other pterosaurs, with comments on cranial crests". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 12 (4): 422–434. doi:10.1080/02724634.1992.10011472.
  139. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth (2008). "Vertebrate Biostratigraphy of the Smoky Hill Chalk (Niobrara Formation) and the Sharon Springs Member (Pierre Shale)". High-Resolution Approaches in Stratigraphic Paleontology. Topics in Geobiology. Vol. 21. pp. 421–437. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9053-0_11. ISBN 978-1-4020-1443-7.
  140. ^ Andres, Brian; Myers, Timothy S. (23 September 2013). "Lone Star Pterosaurs". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 103 (3–4): 383–398. doi:10.1017/S1755691013000303. S2CID 84617119.
  141. ^ S. Meyers, Timothy (November 2010). "Earliest occurrence of the Pteranodontidae (Archosauria: Pterosauria) in North America: new material from the Austin Group of Texas". Journal of Paleontology. 84 (6): 1071–1081. doi:10.1666/09-082.1. S2CID 129049242.
  142. ^ Myers, T.S. (2010). "Earliest occurrence of the Pteranodontidae (Archosauria: Pterosauria) in North America: New material from the Austin Group of Texas". Journal of Paleontology. 84 (6): 1071–1081. doi:10.1666/09-082.1. S2CID 129049242.
  143. ^ Myers, Timothy S. (2010). "A new ornithocheirid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) Eagle Ford Group of Texas" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (1): 280–287. doi:10.1080/02724630903413099. S2CID 130367018.
  144. ^ a b Dudgeon, Thomas W.; Landry, Zoe; Callahan, Wayne R.; Mehling, Carl M.; Ballwanz, Steven (2021). "An Appalachian population of neochoristoderes (Diapsida, Choristodera) elucidated using fossil evidence and ecological niche modelling". Palaeontology. 64 (5): 629–643. doi:10.1111/pala.12545. S2CID 237761128.
  145. ^ Baird, D.; Krause, D.W. (1 May 1979). "Late Cretaceous mammals east of the North American Western Interior Seaway". Journal of Paleontology. 53 (3). Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  146. ^ Denton, Robert K. Jr. "Late Cretaceous Mammals of the Carolinas". gsa.confex.com. The Geological Society of America. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  147. ^ Late Cretaceous Multituberculates of the Carolinas: My...What Big Teeth You Have!
  148. ^ a b Grandstaff, B. S.; Parris, D. C.; Denton, R. K. Jr.; Gallagher, W. B. (1992). "Alphadon (Marsupialia) and Multituberculata (Allotheria) in the Cretaceous of eastern North America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 12 (2): 217–222. doi:10.1080/02724634.1992.10011450.
  149. ^ Denton, R. K. Jr., & O’Neill, R. C., 2010, A New Stagodontid Metatherian from the Campanian of New Jersey and its implications for a lack of east-west dispersal routes in the Late Cretaceous of North America. Jour. Vert. Paleo. 30(3) supp.
  150. ^ Martin, JE; Case, JA; Jagt, JWM; Schulp, AS; Mulder, EWA (2005). "A new European marsupial indicates a Late Cretaceous high latitude dispersal route". Mammal. Evol. 12 (3–4): 495–511. doi:10.1007/s10914-005-7330-x. S2CID 39202343.
  151. ^ Krause, David W.; Baird, Donald (May 1979). "Late Cretaceous Mammals East of the North American Western Interior Seaway". Journal of Paleontology. 53 (3): 562–565. JSTOR 1303997.
  152. ^ Emry, Robert J.; Archibald, J. David; Smith, Charles C. (September 1982). "A Mammalian Molar from the Late Cretaceous of Northern Mississippi". Journal of Paleontology. 55 (5): 953–956. JSTOR 1304518.
  153. ^ Grandstaff, Barbara S.; Parris, David C.; Denton, Robert K. Jr.; Gallagher, William B. (10 June 1992). "Alphadon (Marsupialia) and Multituberculata (Allotheria) in the Cretaceous of Eastern North America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 12 (2): 217–222. doi:10.1080/02724634.1992.10011450. JSTOR 4523441.
  154. ^ "OCEANS OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGY Fossils from the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Sea". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  155. ^ Everhart, Mike. "A Field Guide to Fossils of the Smoky Hill Chalk Part 2: Sharks and Bony Fish". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  156. ^ Everhart, Mike. "A Field Guide to the Smoky Hill Chalk Part 1: Invertebrates". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  157. ^ Everhart, Mike. "A Field Guide to Fossils of the Smoky Hill Chalk Part 3: Marine Reptiles". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  158. ^ Everhart, Mike. "A Field Guide to Fossils of the Smoky Hill Chalk Part 4: Pteranodons, Birds, and Dinosaurs". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  159. ^ Everhart, Mike. "A Field Guide to Fossils of the Smoky Hill Chalk Part 5: Coprolites, pearls, fossilized wood and other remains". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  160. ^ Everhart, Mike. "M. J. EVERHART'S MARINE REPTILE REFERENCES: MOSASAURS, PLESIOSAURS, TURTLES AND OTHER VERTEBRATE FAUNA". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  161. ^ Everhart, Mike. "Other references about fossils from the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Sea, including: Invertebrates, sharks and fish". Oceans of Kansas. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  162. ^ Kiernan, Caitlin R. Kiernan (2002). "Stratigraphic distribution and habitat segregation of mosasaurs in the Upper Cretaceous of western and central Alabama, with an historical review of alabama mosasaur discoveries". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0091:SDAHSO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 130280406.
  163. ^ KIERNAN, CAITLIN R. (2002). "Stratigraphic distribution and habitat segregation of mosasaurs in the Upper Cretaceous of western and central Alabama, with an historical review of alabama mosasaur discoveries". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0091:SDAHSO]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 130280406.
  164. ^ Gallagher, William B.; Campbell, Carl E.; Jagt, John W. M.; Mulder, Eric W. A. (2005). "Mosasaur (Reptilia, Squamata) Material from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Interval in Missouri". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (2): 473–475. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0473:MRSMFT]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 4524462. S2CID 130130952.
  165. ^ Parris, David C. (1974). "Additional Records of Plesiosaurs from the Cretaceous of New Jersey". Journal of Paleontology. 48 (1): 32–35. ISSN 0022-3360. JSTOR 1303102.
  166. ^ Rapp, William F. (1946). "Check List of the Fossil Fishes of New Jersey". Journal of Paleontology. 20 (5): 510–513. JSTOR 1299280.
  167. ^ Case, Gerald R.; Schwimmer, David R. (March 1988). "Late Cretaceous fish from the Blufftown Formation (Campanian) in western Georgia". Journal of Paleontology. 62 (2): 290–301. doi:10.1017/S0022336000029942. S2CID 131268461.
  168. ^ Cockerell, T. D. A.; Stanton, T. W. (1915). "SOME AMERICAN CRETACEOUS FISH SCALES, WITH NOTES ON THE CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF -CRETACEOUS FISHES" (PDF). United States Geological Survey Bulletin. 603: 34–57. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  169. ^ Stringer, Gary L.; Oman, Luke D.; Badger, Robert F. (28 November 2016). "Woodbury Formation (Campanian) in New Jersey yields largest known Cretaceous otolith assemblage of teleostean fishes in North America". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 165 (1): 15–36. doi:10.1635/053.165.0101. S2CID 132425261.
  170. ^ Lauginiger, Edward M. (September 1988). "Cretaceous Fossils from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal" (PDF). Delaware Geological Survey: 61.
  171. ^ Lidgard, Scott; Crane, Peter R. (Winter 1990). "Angiosperm Diversification and Cretaceous Floristic Trends: A Comparison of Palynofloras and Leaf Macrofloras". Paleobiology. 16 (1): 77–93. doi:10.1017/S009483730000974X. JSTOR 2400934. S2CID 88231136.
  172. ^ "22A; Veatch & Stephenson 1911 Cretaceous Material". Georgias Fossils. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  173. ^ Murray (1974). Minnesota. pp. 162–163.
  174. ^ Sims, Hallie J.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Lupia, Richard; Christopher, Raymond A.; Crane, Peter R. (August 1999). "Fossil flowers with Normapolles pollen from the Upper Cretaceous of southeastern North America". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 106 (3–4): 131–151. doi:10.1016/s0034-6667(99)00008-1.
  175. ^ V. Demers‐Potvin, Alexandre; C. E. Larsson, Hans (2 August 2019). "Palaeoclimatic reconstruction for a Cenomanian‐aged angiosperm flora near Schefferville, Labrador". Palaeontology. 62 (6): 1027–1048. doi:10.1111/pala.12444. S2CID 240760598.
  176. ^ Herendeen, Patrick S.; Magallon-Puebla, Susana; Lupia, Richard; R. Crane, Peter; Kobylinska, Jolanta (1999). "A Preliminary Conspectus of the Allon Flora from the Late Cretaceous (Late Santonian) of Central Georgia, U.S.A." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 86 (2): 407–471. doi:10.2307/2666182. JSTOR 2666182.
  177. ^ Crane, Peter R.; Dilcher, David L. (1984). "Lesqueria: An Early Angiosperm Fruiting Axis From the Mid-Cretaceous". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 71 (2): 384–402. doi:10.2307/2399031. JSTOR 2399031.
  178. ^ Blackwell, W. H. (January 1984). "Fossil Ponderosa-like Pine Wood from the Upper Cretaceous of North-east Mississippi". Annals of Botany. 53 (1): 133–136. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a086664. JSTOR 42756870.
  179. ^ Mickell, James E. (Spring 1996). "Grexlupus carolinensis, A NEW PROBABLE LAURACEOUS FRUIT FROM THE LATE CRETACEOUS OF NORTH CAROLINA". Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 112 (1): 1–6. JSTOR 24335383.
  180. ^ Frederiksen, Norman O. (January 1989). "Late Cretaceous and Tertiary Floras, Vegetation, and Paleoclimates of New England". Rhodora. 91 (865): 25–48. JSTOR 23312460.
  181. ^ Berry, Edward Wilbur (1914). "The Upper Cretaceous and Eocene floras of South Carolina and Georgia". US Government Printing Office. 84.