This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
Bengali cuisine (Bengali: বাঙ্গালী রন্ধনপ্রণালী) is the culinary style of Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent encompassing Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, as well as the Barak Valley in Assam. The cuisine has been shaped by the region's diverse history and climate. It is known for its varied use of flavours including mustard oil, as well as the spread of its confectioneries and desserts. There is a strong emphasis on rice as a staple, with fish traditionally the most common protein. Freshwater fish are preferred to seafish, although barramundi, known as bhetki, is also common. Although less popular than fish, Bengalis have eaten a variety of meats since pre-colonial times, ranging from pigs and deer to hedgehogs and turtles. In more recent times, lentils have begun to form a significant part of the diet. Many Bengali food traditions draw from social activities, such as adda, or the Mezban.
Muslims conquered Bengal around the mid-thirteenth century, bringing with them Persian and Arabic cuisine. Such dishes as biryani, korma and bhuna had once been meals of the higher courts, but the cooks of the Mughals brought their recipes to the lower and middle classes. The influence was reinforced during the rule of the British Raj, where Kolkata became the place of refuge for many prominent exiled Nawabs, notably the family of Tipu Sultan from Mysore and Wajid Ali Shah, the ousted Nawab of Awadh. The exiles brought with them hundreds of cooks and masalchis (spice mixers), and as their royal patronage and wealth diminished, they became interspersed into the local population. These cooks came with the knowledge of a very wide range of spices (most notably jafran and mace), the extensive use of ghee, and marinating meat with yoghurt and chilli.
In Bangladesh, this food has become common fare for the population while in West Bengal, they have remained the food of professional chefs. Further innovations include chap (ribs slow cooked on a tawa), rezala (meat in a thin yogurt and cardamom gravy) and kathi roll (kebabs in a wrap).
The Mughals had a particular fixation on meat, bringing mutton and beef into mainstream Bengali cuisine as well as already known kinds of meat like chicken and venison.
Furthermore, traditional desserts had been primarily based on rice pastes and jaggery, but under Mughal influence moved towards significantly increased use of milk, cream, and sugar along with expensive spices such as cardamom and saffron.
Influence of widows
In Hindu tradition, widows were not allowed to eat foods that would not be classified as "bitter", necessitating experiment and innovation. While most Bengali castes ate meat and fish, this was barred for widows. Widows also could not use "heating" foods such as shallot and garlic, but ginger was allowed. This style found a core place in Bengali curries in general, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Expensive spices such as saffron, cinnamon or cloves were used very sparingly—if at all. Nuts, dry fruits, milk and milk products (such as cream, ghee or curd) were similarly scarce. These economic and social restrictions influenced Bengali widows to create a brand new set of meals that utilized only vegetables and cheap spices.
Partition of Bengal
The large-scale displacement along religious lines as a result of the partition led to changes in meal-taking, as to adhere to religious restrictions. In Bangladesh (former East Bengal and East Pakistan), Mughlai food is common, and includes foods that are less popular in West Bengal, such as beef kebab. Additionally, sweets such as zarda and firni-payesh are eaten. In rural Bangladesh, many people eat makna fried, popped, or raw.
During the colonial period, many Western food shops were established in Kolkata, making puff pastries, channa, chocolate, and chips especially popular. Dishes such as chop, gravy cutlet, sponge rasogolla, and ledikeni. As a result of a multi-cultural community, Kolkata city's cuisine continuously changes, and takes heavy influence from Chinese and European palates.
Bengali cuisine can be subdivided into four different types of dishes, charbya (Bengali: চর্ব্য), or food that is chewed, such as rice or fish; choṣya (Bengali: চোষ্য), or food that is sucked, such as ambal and tak; lehya (Bengali: লেহ্য), or foods that are meant to be licked, like chutney; and peya (Bengali: পেয়), which includes drinks, mainly milk.
Different parts of Bengal are famed for certain dishes, food items and ingredients. For example, South Bengali districts around the Sundarbans boast of the expensive chui jhal chilli, which they peel and chop into small pieces to be cooked in their dishes and give off a strong aroma. On the other hand, North Bengal are the homes of many Bengali desserts such as the Mishti doi of Bogra, the Kachagolla of Natore and the Chomchom of Porabari. However, other regions also have famous desserts like the Balish Mishti (pillow-sweet) of Netrokona, the Monda of Muktagachha, the Red Yoghurt of Nabadwip and the famed Roshmolai of Comilla.
Chittagonian culinary tradition is mostly known for Mezban and mixed rice dishes like kala bhuna, which has shoulder pieces of beef and traditional spices. Dried fish (shutki) is more available in the Chittagong region than in other parts of Bengal.
Mezban (locally known as Mejjan) is the Bengali word for special occasion feasts in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh. Historically Mezbani is a traditional regional feast where people are invited to enjoy a meal with white rice and beef, besides other dishes rich in animal fat and dairy. It is held on the occasions such as death anniversary, birth anniversary, celebrating successes, launching of a new business, entry into a new house, the birth of a child, marriage, aqiqah and circumcision, ear piercing of girls and naming of the newborn. The invitation of the Mezban ceremony generally remains open for all and various people to different places and neighbourhoods convey the invitation for the feast. In urban areas, attending a mezban is by invitation only. Usually, the consumption of food at Mezbani takes place from morning to afternoon.
Beef-based dishes are preferred by Bengali Muslims and are a symbol of social prestige for a Mezban feast. The rich and the poor arrange feasts on various occasions as much as circumstances allow them. It has a distinct style of cooking and proper Mezban meat demands a certain skill; for example: The unique beef curry served in this feast is known as Mezbani gosht, that carries a distinctive recipe, knowledge of which is essentially confined within the Chittagonian cooks.
Fish is used instead of beef while cooking Mezban in Hindu tradition. The Hindu community of Chittagong organises Mezbani each year under the banner of "Chittagong Parishad", with curries made from fish, vegetable and dried fish.
Dhakaiya food is one of the most notable regional cuisines. The rich culinary customs are influenced by Mughlai, Central Asian, Armenian, Hindustani and native Bengali cuisines. However, it also has dishes unique to Dhaka. The Nawabs of Dhaka had brought Mughlai cuisine to Bengal, that were wholly retained by Dhaka's culinary community. Due to the high costs of producing Mughlai food, the recipes were limited to the elite classes in colonial India, and slowly expanded as Bangladesh's economy grew. The main focus on lamb, mutton, beef, yoghurt, and mild spices define the taste of the style. Such dishes as kebab; stuffed breads; kacchi biriyani; roast lamb, duck, and chicken; patisapta; Kashmiri tea; and korma are still served at special occasions like Eid and weddings. Due to the high class of the food, using an excess amount of expensive ingredients like ghee, and making the food melt in one's mouth were essential to the feel of the food.
Old Dhaka boasts a variation of the famous pilaf - the Morog Polao - in which the rice is cooked after and the chicken pieces are cut. Other polaos include ilish polao and rui polao. Dhakaiyas are noted for introducing paneer and boiled eggs to khichuri. Dhakai bakarkhani is a thick, biscuit-like flat-bread which is a traditional street-food snack, famed for its quality and taste. It is mainly dished up with tea. Dhakaiyas proudly hold a heritage of creating the best khili paan using various herbs and spices. They also offer a khili paan for diabetic patients called the "paan afsana". Haji biryani is a dish, invented by a restaurateur in 1939, made with highly seasoned rice, goat's meat and number of spices and nuts. The restaurant has become an integral part of Dhakaiya culture.
In Kolkata, many local street vendors own small shops from which they sell their own homemade goods. Items like cheeses (paneer) can be eaten as is, or can be made into sweet sandesh, rosogolla, or chanar payesh. Milk is especially used in Kolkata's various types of payesh, differing in use of different grains and additives like dates, figs, and berries. In addition to European foodstuffs like chocolate, Kolkata takes culinary influence from its Chinese diaspora. Phuchka, also copied by the rest of India as panipuri, is a common kind of Bengali street food made with a fried dough casing and a potato and chickpea filling, usually found in small stalls alongside bhelpuri, masala chai, ghugni and chaat stalls.
During the 19th century many Odia cooks migrated to Bengal to work in the households of affluent Kolkata families. They were also hired to cook in weddings and other family ceremonies. Introduction of Odia cooks into their kitchens brought in subtle but significant changes to Kolkata's cuisine. Many of Kolkata's classic dishes were originally from Odisha but were refined in Kolkata kitchens by Odia cooks. In fact some researchers say that dishes like kanika (Bengali mishti pulao) were first introduced to Kolkata kitchens by Odia cooks although this is contested by other researchers. Even to this date most of the cooks in Kolkata kitchens and hotels are Odia cooks.
The Chinese of Kolkata originally settled into a village called Achipur south of Kolkata in the late 18th century, later moving into the city and finally into its present home in Tangra at the eastern edge of Kolkata. The Chinese-origin people of Kolkata form a substantial and successful community with a distinct identity. With this identity came Chinese food, available at almost every street corner in Kolkata at present, due to the taste, quick cooking procedure, and no similarity with the original Chinese recipe other than the use of soy sauce. They were mostly Cantonese tradesmen and sailors who first settled down here and decided to cook with whatever items they had at hand.
Calcuttan immigrants to other countries have started carrying this abroad as well; Indian Chinese restaurants have appeared in many places in the United States and UK.
Indian Chinese food has been given a second boost in popularity since the 1950s when a large number of Tibetans migrated into Indian Territory, following the 14th Dalai Lama's flight. Tibetans brought their own taste preferences to add to the genre, such as the popular momo (a kind of dumpling) or thukpa (a hearty noodle soup). Tibetans and Nepali immigrants found ready employment in the many kitchens that can now be found on virtually every street in Kolkata.
Adda (Bengali: আড্ডা) is a traditional Bengali means of socialising over food during the work day. Food taken during adda consists usually of mishti or sweetmeats, tea, and coffee, although heartier meats such as fried fish may be brought out as well.
The adda saw a rise during the colonial era among the Bhadralok guild members to meet and talk about a range of topics:
"You could be discussing Charles and Camilla's marriage this moment, and the next moment you're swinging over to the latest cricket series between India and Pakistan, and then swing back to the recent controversy over Tagore."
Being a hobby for artisans, women were largely secluded from adda, a sentiment that has begun to disappear with the democratization of adda and women occupying a larger space in social life. For this reason, adda was seen as a refuge "...from the home, a neutral rendezvous away from both the perceived drudgery of the workplace and domesticity".
In the post-colonial era, the adda has been fading due to the more rigid structure of work and exploitative perceptions of unnecessary laziness. This has inspired a sizeable movement of Bengalis who believe it integral to the idea of lyadh, or doing nothing to relax and recharge. However, adda does still exist, being attended during vacation time or after work at clubs or coffee shops. The tradition even has an equivalent to the Greek symposium, as students may meet for a study session over food or have a teacher teach in a more relaxed environment.
Sylhet boasts a variation of the famous pilaf dish – Akhni – in which the rice is cooked after and the chicken pieces are cut. Commonly consumed varieties of meat include beef, chicken, Mutton and duck/goose in dishes such as Hash O Bash. They also proudly hold the heritage of Beef Hatkora, a rice dish consisting of a wild citrus fruit not found in other parts of Bengal.
During the British period, biscuits and loaves were introduced in Sylhet and received popularity within the Muslim community. The middle-class Hindus of Cachar and Sylhet however were very suspicious of biscuits and breads as they believed they were baked by Muslims. In one occasion, a few Hindus in Cachar caught some Englishman eating biscuits with tea which caused an uproar. The information reached the Hindus of Sylhet and a little rebellion occurred. In response to this, companies started to advertise their bread as "machine-made" and "untouched by (Muslim) hand" to tell Hindus that the breads were "safe for consumption". This incident is mentioned in Bipin Chandra Pal's autobiography and he mentions how gradually culinary habits of Hindus eventually changed.
Srimangal is famous for the Seven Color Tea
Chicken tikka masala was said to have been invented by a British-Bengali chef from Sylhet.
Bengali food is often served on plates which have a distinct flowery pattern often in blue or pink. Another characteristic of Bengali food is the use the boti (also called dao or da). It is a long curved blade on a platform held down by one or both feet; both hands are used to hold whatever is being cut and move it against the blade, which faces the user. This method gives effective control over the cutting process, and can be used to cut anything from prawns to large pumpkins.
A korai is a cooking vessel for most Bengali sauces and stir-fry. The dekchi (a flat-bottomed pan) is used generally for larger amounts of cooking or for making rice. It comes with a thin flat lid which is used also to strain out the starch while finishing up cooking rice. The tawa is used to make roti and paratha. The other prominent cooking utensil is a hari, which is a round-bottomed pot-like vessel. The three mentioned vessels all come in various sizes and in various metals and alloys.
A flat metal spatula, khunti, is used often, along with hata (scoop with a long handle), jhanjri (round-shaped sieve-like spatula to deep-fry food), the shanrashi (pincers to remove vessels from the fire), the ghuntni (wooden hand blender) for puréeing dal, the wooden belun chaki (round pastry board and rolling pin), and the shil nora, which is a rough form of a mortar and pestle or grinding stone. The kuruni is used only to grate coconuts.
Silverware is not a part of traditional Bengali cookery.
Bengalis usually eat sitting on the floor with food served on a dostorkhan. They historically ate without silverware, with a large banana or plantain leaf serving as the plate, or with plates made from dried sal leaves sewn together.
It is customary to offer guests food and drink appropriate to the time of their visit. At meals, guests are served first, with the possible exception of very old or very young members of the host family. Within the family, serving starts with the senior males (those of highest social rank or eldest). School-age children are served before wives, daughter-in-laws, and the cook, who are the last to eat.
Prior to colonisation, adherence to meal order was a marker of social status, but with British and Portuguese influence and the growth of the middle class, this has slowly disappeared. Courses are frequently skipped or combined with everyday meals.[failed verification] Meals were usually served course by course to the diners by the youngest housewives, but increasing influence of nuclear families and urbanisation has replaced this.[self-published source] It is common to place everything on platters in the centre of the table, and each diner serves themselves. Ceremonial occasions such as weddings used to have elaborate serving rituals, but professional catering and buffet-style dining is now commonplace. However, large family occasions and more lavish ceremonial feasts may still abide by these rules.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2020)
Daily meals are usually simple, geared to balance nutrition and making extensive use of vegetables. The courses progress broadly from lighter to richer and heavier and go through various tastes and taste cleansers. Rice remains common throughout the meal and is the main constituent of the meal, until the chaţni (chutney) course.
Bengalis eat copious amounts of fish and typically look for freshwater and brackish fish when making meals. They also temper it with phoron. Popular fish curries include boal, rohu, ilish, and pabda.
One tradition includes the left side of the cidal fish being cooked in oil. Bengali Vaishnavas avoid all types of fish, eggs and meat.
Bengali sweets have a long history. The Portuguese friar Sebastien Manrique, travelling in the region in the 17th century, noted the multitude of milk-based foods and sweets prepared in traditional ways. Falooda, shahi jilapi and shemai are popular sweet foods and desserts.
Roshogolla, a Bengali traditional sweet, is one of the most widely consumed sweets in India. It spread to Bengal in 1868. Chhana based sweets were introduced in Eastern India from about the 18th century; as the process and technology involved in synthesizing "Chhana" was introduced to the Indians by the Dutch in the 1790s. The cottage cheese "schmierkase" was also known as Dutch cheese. The earlier versions of Rossogolla lacked binding capacity of the modern avatar that is well known and highly acclaimed today. This was due to the fact that the know-how involved in synthesizing such a sweet was unknown before being experimentally developed by Nobin Chandra Das and then constantly improved and further standardized by his successors. Furthermore, the "chhana" manufactured in those days was a coarse and granular variety and had low binding capacity. It was made by citric and ascorbic acid from natural fruit extracts. This type of "chhana" cannot be worked on to compact into any regular and firm shape for the purpose of sweet-making, leave alone making Rossogolla. This is because of a documented technological issue – lactic acid (extracted from whey) used to curdle milk now was introduced to India in the late 18th century by Dutch and Portuguese colonists (along with acetic acid). It is this method that creates the fine, smooth modern "chhana" with high binding capacity – which is now the staple raw material for Bengali confectioners. At present, Nobin Chandra Das is referred to have invented the spongy variant of rossogolla.
Laddu (or as it is known as "darbesh" in Bengal) is a very common sweet in West Bengal and Bangladesh, as well as the rest of the subcontinent, especially during celebrations and festivities. They are usually made out of flour, ghee/butter/oil and sugar. Alternative recipes can be made of coconut shavings and jaggery, raisins, chopped nuts, oatmeal, khoa, nutmeg, cardamom, or poppy seeds, among other ingredients. The sweet dates back to the year 4 BCE, where it was used for medicinal purposes and to keep the hormones of 9-11-year-old girls' hormones "in check".
Pantua is similar to gulab jamun, and could be called a Bengali variant of that dish.
Several varieties of doi such as mishţi doi, fruit-floured doi like aam doi, custards, and rice pudding (khir or firni) are also popular in West Bengal.
Shôndesh, chhanar jilapi, kalo jam, raghobshai, "pantua", "jolbhora shondesh", "roshbhora", "lord chomchom", payesh, bundiya, nalengurer shôndesh, malpoa, shor bhaja, langcha, babarsa, and a variety of others are examples of sweets in Bengali cuisine.
Common beverages include shorbot, lachhi, ghol, matha, falooda and Rooh Afza. The two main types of Bengali tea are dudh cha (milk tea) and masala cha. Srimangal, the tea capital of Bengal, is famed for the Seven Color Tea whilst Dhaka is famed for the borhani. Traditional fruit juices (rosh) are also drunk such as sugarcane juice, mango juice, palm fruit juice, date juice as well as basil seed or tukma-based drinks.
- ^ Jane Hinchey (2019). Bangladesh. Redback Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 9781925630831.
- ^ Joe Bindloss (2022). Lonely Planet India. Lonely Planet. p. 802. ISBN 9781837580330.
- ^ Utsa Ray (2015). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781107042810.
- ^ Colleen Taylor Sen (2004). Food Culture in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 117. ISBN 9780313324871.
- ^ Ghulam Murshid (2018). Bengali Culture Over a Thousand Years. Niyogi Books. p. 428.
- ^ Pearce, Melissa (10 July 2013). "Defining Bengali Cuisine: The Culinary Differences of West Bengal and Bangladesh". Culture Trip. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- ^ a b c "Mughalnama: changing the contours of Mughlai cuisine in India". ANI. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
- ^ a b "All That You Ever Wanted To Know About Mughlai Cuisine!". culturalindia.net. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- ^ Nair, Rukmini. "Are we what we eat?". Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- ^ Banerji, Chitrita (Winter 1995). "What Bengali Widows Cannot Eat". Granta (52). Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- ^ a b "Food Habits". Banglapedia. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ a b c "Historical Sketch | Bengal Cuisine". bengalcuisine.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ Pearce, Melissa (10 July 2013). "Defining Bengali Cuisine: The Culinary Differences of the Bengal Region". Culture Trip. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ "Our Food Their Food: A Historical Overview of the Bengali Platter | Sahapedia". sahapedia.org. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ "Coastal cuisines of Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- ^ a b c d e Ahmad Mamtaz (2012). "Mezban". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
- ^ a b c d Fayeka Zabeen Siddiqua (10 October 2013). "Majestic Mezban". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- ^ "Palate from the port". The Daily Star. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- ^ a b Ray, Utsa (5 January 2015). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 210–215.
- ^ "The Nawabs of Dhaka And Their Regal Cuisine". KIXP. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ Anand, Shilpa Nair (7 May 2018). "Food of the Nawabs". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- ^ "Old Dhaka Bakarkhani – A Legendary Bread". 19 October 2013.
- ^ "Bakarkhani: delight in every bite". Daily Sun. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- ^ Ara, Shifat (18 February 2014). "Gourmet Paan". The Daily Star (Bangladesh).
- ^ Mydans, Seth (8 July 1987). "For a secret stew recipe, time is running out". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- ^ Chitty, Tom (8 November 2018). "Kolkata: A city of arts, culture and cuisine". cnbc.com. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- ^ "Bengali Choshir Payesh Recipe | Choshir Paayesh". Debjanir Rannaghar. 13 January 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- ^ "Aamer Payesh Or Mango Rice Pudding Or Aam Kheer | PeekNCook". Moumita Ghosh Recipe Blog PeekNCook. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- ^ "Calcutta Cuisine - Cuisine of Kolkata India - Bengali Traditional Food - What to Eat in Calcutta India". kolkata.org.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- ^ Dugar, Divya (12 June 2015). "Kolkata food: A dining guide to restaurants and dishes". CNN Travel. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- ^ "Alexis Foundation". Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- ^ "Is Odisha India's most underrated food destination?". Condé Nast Traveller India. 15 December 2017.
- ^ Mitra, Bishwabijoy. "Odia cooks to bring back forgotten Bengali recipes - Times of India". The Times of India.
- ^ "Bengali cuisine,Historical influences,Characteristics of Bengali cuisine,Cooking styles,Common Bengali Recipe Styles,Culinary Influences,Bengali meals,Mishţi (sweets),Snacks". beautifulbengal.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ a b Biswas, Soumendra Nath (2009). "Chapter I". Developing Food as a marketing tool for the growth of hospitality and tourism industry in India with special reference to West Bengal (PhD). University of Burdwan. hdl:10603/61925.
- ^ "Know All About The Famous Bengali Culinary Style Popular in the Eastern Part of the Indian Subcontinent". www.culturalindia.net. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ Biswas, Soumendra Nath (2009). "Chapter VII". Developing Food as a marketing tool for the growth of hospitality and tourism industry in India with special reference to West Bengal (PhD). University of Burdwan. hdl:10603/61925.
- ^ "Tandoori momo: how Tibetan refugees reshaped Indian cuisine". South China Morning Post. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ "Lip-Smacking Street Food Places in Kolkata That Should Be on Every Foodies List!". www.holidify.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ Deepak, Sharanya (27 April 2017). "Inside the Birthplace of Indian-Chinese Cuisine". Vice. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ a b c Chakravarti, Sudeep (December 2017). "A brief history of Adda—the Bengali fine art of discussion". Quartz India. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
- ^ Trachtenberg, Peter (15 May 2005). "The Chattering Masses". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
- ^ a b Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2001). "Adda, Calcutta: Dwelling in Modernity". In Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar (ed.). Alternative Modernities. Duke University Press. pp. 124–126. ISBN 978-0-8223-2714-1.
- ^ Nevins, Debbie; Mariam, Whyte (15 July 2018). Bangladesh. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC. p. 126.
- ^ Ray, Utsa (5 January 2015). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press.
- ^ WildFilmsIndia (19 February 2015), Women cut vegetables at a Bengali wedding in India, using a Boti or Dao, archived from the original on 17 November 2021, retrieved 31 March 2019
- ^ "www.CookingInIndia.com ~ Your Desi(Indian) Kitchen on the Net". 8 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- ^ "Pots, Pans and Griddles - Gourmet Online". 14 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- ^ a b "traditional indian cooking utensils - Indian Recipes, Indian Food and Cooking - FiveTastes.com". fivetastes.com. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- ^ a b Shrestha, Nanda R.; Paul, Bimal K. (2002). Nepal and Bangladesh: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-57607-285-1.
- ^ a b McElroy, Linda. "Customs and Cuisine of Bangladesh | Dining for Women". Dining for Women. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- ^ Scroope, Chara (2017). "Bangladeshi Culture - Etiquette". Cultural Atlas. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
Plates are taken to a main dish for serving rather than passing food around the table.
- ^ Sen, Collen Taylor (1997). "The Portuguese Influence on Bengali Cuisine". In Harlan Walker (ed.). Food on the Move: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 1996. Prospect Books. pp. 288–293. ISBN 978-0-907325-79-6.
- ^ Momin, Sajeda (2001). The Statesman Good Food Guide to Kolkata. Nachiketa Publication – via Google Books.
- ^ Saha, Sanghamitra (1998). A Handbook of West Bengal. International School of Dravidian Linguistics. ISBN 978-81-85692-24-1.
- ^ Krondl, Michae (August 2010). "The Sweetshops of Kolkata". Gastronomica. University of California Press. 10 (3): 58–65. doi:10.1525/gfc.2010.10.3.58. JSTOR 10.1525/gfc.2010.10.3.58.
- ^ "History of Rossogolla". Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- ^ "The Origin of Rossogolla". Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- ^ "History of Rasgulla". Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- ^ "Sweet shops make hay in Diwali shine". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ Dundoo, Sangeetha Devi (31 October 2013). "As good as home". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ "Dinkache ladoo, Gund ladoo, Gond Ladoo, Gond Ka Laddu.....Easy Recipes on CuisineCuisine.com". cuisinecuisine.com. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ Collingham, Lizzie (6 February 2006). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198038504.
- ^ Krondl, Michael (1 October 2011). Sweet Invention: A History of Dessert. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781569769546.
- ^ "Oatmeal Laddu". Living Foodz. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ "Food Story: The journey of ladoo from a medicine to the much-loved Indian sweet". The Indian Express. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ Charmaine O'Brien (3 February 2003). Flavours of Delhi: A Food Lover's Guide. Penguin Books Limited. p. 145. ISBN 978-93-5118-237-5.
- ^ "Notun Gurer Payesh/Traditional Bengali Rice Pudding | Remembering My Dida". IshitaUnblogged. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- ^ Sen, Collen Taylor (2000). "Sandesh: An Emblem of Bengaliness". In Harlan Walker (ed.). Milk-- Beyond the Dairy: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1999. Prospect Books. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-903018-06-4.
- Ray, Krishnendu (2004). The migrant's table: meals and memories in Bengali-American households. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-096-8. Retrieved 14 October 2011.