|Destruction of the Kakhovka Dam|
|Part of the Dnieper campaign|
of the Russian invasion of Ukraine
|Location||Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant, Kherson Oblast, Ukraine|
|Date||6 June 2023 |
between 02:00 and 02:54 (UTC+3)
|Deaths||58 reported as of 21 June|
|Perpetrators||Disputed; Russia is blamed by most experts[a]|
The Kakhovka Dam in Ukraine was breached in the early hours of 6 June 2023, causing extensive flooding along the lower Dnieper river, also called the Dnipro, in Kherson Oblast. The dam was under the control of the Russian military, which had seized it in the early days of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Many experts have concluded that Russian forces likely blew up a segment of the dam to hinder the planned Ukrainian counter-offensive. Russian authorities have denied the accusation.
The dam was about 30 m (98 ft) tall and 3.2 km (2.0 mi) long; the breached segment was about 85 m (279 ft) long. Two days after the breach, the average level of flooding in the Kherson region was 5.61 m (18.4 ft), according to local officials.
There were signs of an explosion at the time of the breach. Both Ukrainian and Russian sources reported hearing blasts from the dam's hydroelectric power station, regional seismometers detected explosions in the area, and a satellite detected the infrared heat signature of an explosion.
Water levels in the Kakhovka Reservoir, controlled by Russia, had been rising for months and were at a 30-year high when the dam failed. Thousands of residents downstream were evacuated, and floods submerged several villages in Ukrainian- and Russian-controlled areas. By 21 June, 58 people were reported to have been killed and 31 were missing. Flooding killed many animals and damaged farmland, homes, businesses, and infrastructure. The loss of water from the reservoir could threaten the long-term water supply to Russian-controlled Crimea and the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, but there was no immediate risk to either.
The Kakhovka Dam raised the natural level of the Dnieper River by 16 m (52 ft), creating the Kakhovka Reservoir. This was the second-largest reservoir in Ukraine by area (2,155 km2 (832 sq mi)) and the largest by water volume (18.19 km³ (4.4 mi³)).
Another dam on the Dnieper was breached twice during World War II in Ukraine. In August 1941, the Soviet NKVD blew up the Dnieper dam to hinder the Nazi German advance, killing between 3,000 and 100,000 Soviet civilians, as well as Soviet troops. In 1943, it was blown up again, this time by retreating German troops.
The Kakhovka dam, built in 1956, was seized by Russian forces in February 2022, during the early days of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Russia attacked Ukrainian infrastructure that year, damaging several other dams and leaving Ukrainians without access to water. Examples include rocket attack against Kyiv dam on 26 February 2022, the destruction of the Oskil river dam by Russian land forces in July and the missile attack on the Kryvyi Rih dam that September.
According to Ukrainian military intelligence, Russian forces carried out "major mining" of the Kakhovka dam shortly after taking control in February 2022, and in April 2022 mined locks and supports and installed "tented trucks with explosives [on] the dam itself". In October 2022, the Foreign Minister of Moldova, Nicu Popescu, said that Ukraine had intercepted Russian missiles targeting a different dam, on the Dniester river. At the time, Ukrainian president Zelenskyy warned of Russian preparations to destroy the Kakhovka dam and blame Ukraine, and called for an international observation mission at the dam to prevent a potential catastrophe.
On 19 Oct 2022, the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) reported that Russia was likely setting information conditions to conduct a false-flag attack on the Kakhovka Dam. The Russian military announced that they had received information that Ukraine intended to strike the dam. According to ISW analysis, they likely intended these warnings to set information conditions for Russian forces to damage the dam and then to blame Ukraine, while using the floods to cover their own retreat.
In late 2022, Ukraine retook the western bank of the Dnieper during the Kherson counteroffensive. Ukraine accused Russia of planning to breach the Kakhovka dam with explosives in retaliation. During the counteroffensive, Ukrainian Major General Andriy Kovalchuk at one point considered flooding the Dnieper River below the dam, so Ukrainian forces conducted HIMARS test strikes on the Kakhovka dam. One strike targeted one of the dam's floodgates to determine if the rocket could open it. The test was deemed a success and the action was kept as a "last resort" in case of a Russian offensive.
The Russians then opened more sluice gates, allowing water to rush out of the reservoir. Ukraine's Zaporizhzhia Regional Military Administration suggested that Russia intended to flood the area south of the dam, to keep Ukrainian forces from crossing the Dnieper River. Ukrhydroenergo, Ukraine's hydro electric company, likewise believed Russian occupiers "opened the station's locks fearing an advance of Ukrainian soldiers". Spring 2023 brought an unusually large amount of rain, with 3.5 times the normal amount of rainfall recorded in April.
On 3–6 May, satellite photos indicated that Russian forces were building a small dam on Tokmachka river, which resulted in significant widening and flooding upstream, at the direction of expected Ukrainian offensive. This was considered by some to be part of a Russian trend to use deliberate flooding to thwart the Ukrainian counteroffensive.
From mid-February to late May 2023, either deliberately or as a result of neglect, the damaged dam was not adjusted to match the increased water flow. As a result, water washed over the top of the dam and land upstream of the dam was flooded. Water levels in the reservoir reached a 30-year high. According to journalist Peter Beaumont, it is possible that Russia had deliberately allowed water levels to rise to an extraordinary level in order to make the collapse more impactful.
On 28 May an aerial photo was taken of a car that appeared to be loaded with explosives, in the form of large barrels and a land mine, parked on the top of the dam. According to a Ukrainian special forces communications official, the purpose of the car was both to stop any Ukrainian attack on the dam and to amplify the explosion that the Russians planned to originate in the machine room, which was located in a building to one side of the dam. Early drone footage suggests that the initial dam destruction occurred near the machine room.
On 30 May 2023, less than a week before the dam breach, the Russian government decreed that in occupied Ukraine, "Until 1 January 2028, technical investigations shall not be carried out into accidents at hazardous production facilities and accidents at hydraulic structures that occurred as a result of military operations, sabotage and acts of terrorism." Oleg Ustenko, an economic adviser to Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, called this a "smoking gun", saying that it would take somebody with a "very vivid imagination" to believe that the passing of this legislation less than a week prior to the destruction of the Kakhovka hydroelectric power station, covering precisely the circumstances that would transpire, was just a coincidence.
On 2 June, a small part of the road over the dam collapsed, along with parts of the piers which supported them, according to satellite images obtained by BBC News. According to NPR science correspondent Geoff Brumfiel, "That indicates to me that there were structural issues at the facility before whatever happened today."
The Institute for the Study of War reported on June 6, the day the dam was destroyed, that "Russian sources have expressed intense and explicit concern over the possibility that Ukraine has been preparing to cross the river and counterattack into east bank Kherson Oblast."
Between 2:18 and 2:20 a.m. local time on 6 June 2023, Ukrainian and Russian sources reported loud sounds like explosions that appeared to come from the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant in the dam. Nova Kakhovka residents discussed the explosions on a Telegram channel with 5,000 members, with one resident describing (in Ukrainian) "orange flares" and saying that the water was "very noisy ... very loud" at 2:45. Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy said there was an "internal explosion" at 2:50. According to The Economist, the explosions were so strong that they rattled windows 80 km (50 mi) from the dam.
Regional seismometers in Romania and Ukraine that were 600 and 500 km (370 and 310 mi) away detected signals that Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) scientists interpreted as a weak seismic event in the area of the dam at 2:35 a.m. Ukrainian summer time, and a stronger, possibly magnitude 1–2 signal representing an explosion occurring at 2:54 a.m. (Seismic waves, which travel at 6 km/sec in surface rock, would take 83 and 100 seconds to travel 500 and 600 km.)
NORSAR department head Ben Dando said the characteristics of the 2:54 signal corresponded well to those of an explosion but he said there was "too much uncertainty" on the magnitude, meaning that the power was equally uncertain. Officially collected data was not clear enough to establish whether there were one or two explosions, or even whether the signal of 2:35 a.m. represented an explosion. NORSAR CEO Anne Lycke said it was clear that the signal heard at 2:54 represented a man-made event, but it remains uncertain whether that signal was what caused the dam to collapse.
Experts consulted by The New York Times (NYT) said on 7 June that the most likely cause was a blast from inside, adding that an attack from outside or a structural failure were less plausible. They said that blasts from outside—such as from a missile or artillery strike—would exert only a fraction of the force needed, and would also have accuracy limitations.
Ihor Syrota, the director general of the Ukrainian hydroelectric power company Ukrhydroenergo, rejected the possibility of shelling or catastrophic structural failure as Russian propaganda. Syrota stated that "the plant was designed to withstand a nuclear strike. To destroy the plant from the outside, at least three aircraft bombs, each of 500kg, would have had to [have been] dropped on the same spot. The station was blown up from the inside".
Christopher Binnie, a water engineer specializing in dams and water resources development, and visiting professor at the University of Exeter, said the fact that there were "two breaches, either side of a structure", indicates that natural causes are highly unlikely. "Were the breach to be caused by excess upstream water level there would only be one". He also said it was highly unlikely the dam was breached by Ukrainian shelling, because to destroy the dam they "would need to get massive explosives close to the foundations".
The New York Times published another examination of the reason for the dam failure on 16 June. They consulted with Ihor Strelets, an engineer who spent months at the dam and served as the deputy head of water resources for the Dnieper from 2005 until 2018, who said the dam's huge bulk was mostly hidden below the waterline. A colossal block of nearly-solid concrete, 20 m (66 ft) high and up to 40 m (130 ft) thick at the bottom, held back the water. It also meant the Cold War-era dam could withstand almost any attack from outside. The sluice gates sat on top of this concrete, opening and shutting to adjust the water level in the reservoir. It became clear after the breach that not only the gates but also the concrete foundation had been destroyed. There had been earlier damage to the roadway over the dam and to some of the sluice gates (Ukrainian missiles had done some of this, as had retreating Russian troops). Also, a small part of a concrete wall separating the dam and the power plant collapsed on April 23 (44 days before the dam failed), which was said by NYT experts to be possible evidence of erosion near the dam.
According to the dam experts consulted by the NYT, neither this earlier damage nor the pressure caused by the high water level would have been enough to cause the structural damage to the dam foundation that occurred. There was a passageway inside the foundation that, according to experts, would have been the ideal location to plant explosives having enough force to blow up such a structure, and evidence suggests this is where they were planted. In the view of Nick Glumac, an engineering professor and explosives expert at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, "It's hard for me to see how anything other than an internal explosion in the passageway could account for the damage. ...That's a massive amount of concrete to move".
The New York times also consulted with Ben Dando, a seismologist at NORSAR, who said the two seismic signals detected at 2:35 a.m. and 2:54 a.m. are consistent with an explosion deep inside the dam and having enough force to blow the huge structure apart; they are not consistent with a dam collapsing from natural causes. Engineers interviewed by the New York Times made the same inference from the infrared heat signal picked up by a US satellite. Volker Oye, another NORSAR seismologist, said, "We see a pulse of energy which is focused, which is typical of an explosion". He said that a blast of this kind in this area but not due to an explosion would be an unusual coincidence. After the first blast, videos suggest that the water further tore apart the dam. According to engineers who study dam failures and were contacted by the New York Times, this kind of damage to such a huge concrete foundation would be very unlikely unless there was an explosion deep inside. The engineers said there would need to be an examination of the foundations to reach a final conclusion as to how the dam was destroyed.
According to analyses by Conflict Intelligence Team (CIT), it is more likely that the dam collapsed as a result of structural issues caused by the negligence of the Russians who were in control. CIT states that the gates being open on one side of the dam in an abnormal mode for eight consecutive months caused erosion in the soil on which the basement of the dam stood, reduced its load-bearing capacity, and resulted in the stability of the walls being compromised. CIT states that under this scenario Russian authorities are solely to blame for the dam failure.
CIT criticized the NYT analysis of a concrete wall (separating the dam and the power plant) that collapsed on 23 April (44 days before the dam failed), saying that NYT experts attributed this to erosion due to water discharge near the dam, but provided no explanation as to why erosion in that location could not have led to erosion of the dam's body. They also criticized the failure of the NYT experts to explain the gradual collapse of the road near the main generator hall in the days preceding the dam's disintegration.
CIT questioned how the 2:54 seismic event could be attributed to an explosion destroying the dam when local residents reported explosions at around 2:20 and the timestamp on video footage from Russian servicemen showed that the dam was already destroyed at 2:46. CIT asserted that the NYT analysis did not address how the gates being only open on one side for eight consecutive months affected the integrity of the dam and the formation of hydraulic jumps, nor whether the velocity of the water flow exceeded the non-eroding velocity.
According to Mark Mulligan, professor of Physical Geography at University College London, "Structural failure resulting from the impact of earlier damage associated with the war remains a possibility. ...The very high level of water in the reservoir coupled with previous damage, leading to uncontrolled flows of water through the dam could lead to catastrophic structural failure".
According to Andrew Barr, an expert in the effects of blast damage on structures at the University of Sheffield, the dam actually had three different components: (1) a central concrete section containing sluice gates to control water flow, called a barrage, (2) a hydroelectric power plant (HPP) for power generation, and (3) a long, earth-filled embankment dam. Very early video footage shows that the barrage was the first to go, most likely by explosives. Barr believes that the damage to the barrage exceeds what could have been accomplished by guided munitions, and that when the water level goes down explosive damage should be easy to recognize. Barr believes that the HPP was the next to go, and that this could only have been achieved by an explosion below the turbine hall. This explosion would have been separate from any explosion that destroyed the barrage. Last to go was a portion of the earth-filled embankment, both above and below the dam, on the left side of the river (looking downstream). "Unlike the concrete barrage and power plant, the embankment is not designed to resist large flows of water, and does not experience them in normal operation. The sheer volume of water mobilised by the sudden appearance of the breach appears to have quickly scoured the soil away," he said. Barr supplied before and after images showing where each of the destroyed dam components had been.
Most experts agree that as between Russia and Ukraine, it is more likely that Russia attacked the dam. According to analyses by dam and engineering experts consulted by the New York Times, "the evidence clearly suggests the dam was crippled by an explosion set off by the side that controls it: Russia." A report issued by the international human rights law firm Global Rights Compliance (GRC) concluded that the destruction was caused by explosions set off by Russia. The GRC report specifically said that it is "highly likely" that destruction was caused by Russia, using "pre-emplaced explosives positioned at critical points within the dam's structure", and that this was "an 80% and above determination".
The GRC report was issued by a "Mobile Justice Team". These teams were created to implement the Atrocity Crimes Advisory Group for Ukraine, which was established and funded by the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom on 25 May 2022, "to provide strategic advice and operational assistance to Ukraine’s Office of the Prosecutor General (OPG) in the investigation and prosecution of atrocity crimes in Ukraine".
The Institute for the Study of War (ISW), in reference to the NYT report, concurred that "the preponderance of available evidence, reasoning, and rhetoric suggests that Russian forces deliberately damaged the dam". According to the ISW, Russia had a "greater and clearer interest in flooding the lower Dnipro" as it would widen the Dnieper and hinder a Ukrainian crossing, at the cost of flooding some of its own positions. Newsweek and Politico reported that Molfar, a Ukrainian, London-based OSINT group, published a report giving its analysis of the causes and chronology of the dam collapse, and concluding that Russia destroyed the dam.
An analysis by the Conflict Intelligence Team concludes that the dam collapsed as a result of structural issues caused by Russian negligence, and therefore Russia is responsible. Structural issues were considered a possibility by others as well.
Ukrainian authorities have agreed with international experts who say that that Russian forces destroyed the dam by means of a blast from inside the engine room. In regards to motivation, Ukrainian officials said Russia destroyed the dam "in a panic" to slow down Ukraine's planned counteroffensive. Ukraine specifically blamed Russia's 205th Separate Motor Rifle Brigade, based at Nova Kakhovka, for blowing up the dam. Investigative journalists from the Slidstvo.Info agency and from the Schemes project (an investigative news project run by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Ukrainian Service) reported that they received incriminating intercepted conversations involving individually identified members of the 205th brigade. The conversations begin at 2:20, right before the dam was destroyed, mention that they are preparing to do something "all on command" and state that there was an "emergency event". At the end they were told to pack up very quickly and leave. The brigade's Telegram channel warned in October 2022 that the dam was mined and would be blown up if Ukrainian forces attempted to cross the Dnieper, also giving advice for Russian troops to stay safe. On 9 June, the Security Service of Ukraine released what they said was an intercepted call between two Russian officers admitting responsibility for the destruction. In the call, the alleged officers say that the explosion was supposed to "scare" people but "(they did) more than what they planned for."
The European Parliament announced on 15 June 2023 that it had adopted a resolution that condemned in the strongest possible terms Russia’s destruction of the Kakhovka dam on 6 June, saying that this constituted a war crime. The Parliament also called for Ukraine to join NATO. According to The New York Times, "a senior American military official" reported that the US government "had ruled out an external attack on the dam, like a missile, bomb or some other projectile, and now assesses that the explosion came from one or more charges set inside it, most likely by Russian operatives."
By 21 June, at least 58 people were reported to have died from the effects of the dam's destruction. 41 of the dead came from the Russian-occupied parts of Kherson Oblast, while the rest came from Ukrainian-controlled territory in Kherson and Mykolaiv Oblast.
Flooding and evacuations
The day after the dam's destruction, Ukraine's prosecutor general estimated that about 40,000 people located in Ukrainian- and Russian-controlled land were likely to be impacted by flooding. The Ukrainian governor of Kherson Oblast, Oleksandr Prokudin, said that about 600 square kilometres (230 sq mi) of the region was underwater and that 68 percent of the flooded territory was on the Russian-controlled side.
The National Police of Ukraine ordered an evacuation in the Ukrainian-controlled western bank of the Dnieper, including Mykolaivka, Olhivka, Lvove, Tiahynka, Poniativka, Ivanivka, Tokarivka, Prydniprovske, Sadove and the Korabel Island district of Kherson city. The governor of Kherson Oblast, Oleksandr Prokudin, told Ukrainian TV on the morning of 6 June that eight villages had been flooded, and that evacuations by bus and train were ongoing for 16,000 residents in the affected areas.
According to the Ukrainian ground forces, the Russian army continued to shell the right bank during the evacuation. On 7 June, Zelenskyy alleged to Politico Europe that Russian forces were murdering rescuers working at the site of the flood. Three people were killed after Russian forces opened fire on an evacuation boat on 12 June.
In Russian-controlled Nova Kakhovka by the eastern end of the dam, 22,000 people live in flood risk areas, and 600 houses were reported to have been flooded. A state of emergency on the left bank of the river was declared by Russian authorities. On the morning of 6 June, Andrey Alekseyenko, acting head of the Russian-installed Kherson military-civilian administration, reported on Telegram that fourteen localities were on the area on risk of flooding on the Russian-controlled bank of the river: Bilohrudove, Dnipriany, Hola Prystan, Kardashynka, Kokhany, Korsunka, Kozachi Laheri, Krynky, Mala Kardashynka, Oleshky, Pishchanivka, Solontsi, Stara Zburyivka and Zabaryne, as well as the islands of the lower Dnieper.
Ukrainian authorities said an evacuation of 17,000 people was underway from the territories under Ukrainian control, with 24 villages flooded.
Animals and environment
A number of wildlife habitats were flooded.
Some 300 animals at the Fairytale Dibrova Zoo drowned in the disaster. The zoo was just downstream and to the west of the dam. In the immediate aftermath, Russian news agency TASS falsely claimed the zoo did not even exist before backtracking and admitting that there was a zoo but insisted all animals were safe.
The Red Cross warned that minefields were washed away. Erik Tollefsen, head of Red Cross' weapons section, said: "We knew where the hazards were ... Now we don't know. All we know is that they are somewhere downstream."
Andriy Yermak, head of the Office of the President of Ukraine, said on 20 June, "More than 50,000 hectares (123,552 acres) of Ukrainian forests have been flooded and at least half of them (trees) will die. This is more than the area of forests in Iceland." He also said that the Kakhovka Reservoir was covered with 95,000 tons of dead fish.
The Velykyi Luh National Nature Park, a protected area consisting of 13 islands in the northeastern part of the Kakhovka Reservoir was completely drained, raising fears of a drought, while water levels decreased by approximately 13 meters in the Kamianska Sich National Park, according to the Ukrainian Environment Ministry.
The release of chemicals such as ammonia and bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli and cholera into the Dnipro-Buh Delta and the Black Sea following the dam’s destruction led to beach closures and fishing bans across Odesa and Mykolaiv Oblasts. Authorities said the contamination of those areas had turned them into “garbage dumps” and “animal cemeteries.”
In the weeks following the dam’s destruction, Ukraine claimed that outbreaks of intestinal diseases such as cholera had broken out in Russian-occupied areas of Kherson Oblast and Crimea, adding that several Russian soldiers had died as a result.
According to ecologist Alexey Vasilyuk, for decades industrial waste from Zaporizhzhia, including a huge amount of heavy metals, settled in the mud at the bottom of the Kakhovka Reservoir since there was no flow to disturb it. Now, the current in the river raises this waste into the water column and moves it downstream. Also, the area that used to be at the bottom of the reservoir but has now dried out will begin to be blown away by the wind, allowing these metals to be absorbed into plants that people and animals eat. Vaslyuk advises that the sowing of grasses in these bare areas will help prevent dispersion of these metals.
The flooding was widely expected to hinder a planned Ukrainian counteroffensive by making it harder for the Ukrainian army to cross the Dnieper River into Russian-occupied territory. Vladimir Saldo, the Russian-installed governor of occupied Kherson, said the breach would help Russian forces defend the area, saying, "In military terms, the situation has worked out in a way that is operationally and tactically in favour of Russian forces".
Many analysts noted that the breach, which eliminated the road on the dam, left only the Antonivsky Bridge in Kherson city as a paved river crossing. Former Ukraine defence minister Andrii Zahorodniuk said, "It effectively makes crossing the river in that area impossible...Even conducting operations in that whole area will be much more difficult." On 2 July, 70 Ukrainian soldiers landed under the Russian-controlled end of the Antonivskyi Bridge on the left bank of the Dnipro river, in the first crossing since the dam’s destruction.
Analysts also noted that floodwaters would make the soil on the Russian side of the river swampy for weeks to come, preventing its use by heavy machinery such as tanks. The increased difficulty of moving forces in the area would help secure the Russian southern flank, freeing up military resources to repel Ukraine's offensive in Zaporizhzhia Oblast.
Furthermore, the civil emergency could be expected to drain resources that could otherwise have been used by Ukraine in the war.
Five days after the breach, Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister Hanna Malyar said on 11 June that Russian forces were transferring their most combat-capable forces from Kherson to Bakhmut, adding that Russia likely destroyed the dam to shorten its defensive lines in Kherson ahead of the Ukrainian counteroffensive. But four days later, the Institute for the Study of War said that they had not yet observed Russian elements moving from Kherson to Bakhmut.
The U.K. Defense Ministry said on 19 June that over the previous 10 days Russia had moved elements of its Dnipro Group of Forces from the eastern bank of the Dnieper River to reinforce the Zaporizhzhia and Bakhmut sectors, and that this likely reflects Russia’s perception that a major Ukrainian attack across the Dnieper had become less likely.
Retired U.S. general David Petraeus said on June 6 that the breach would cause no "military implications that are particularly large" because "the period of time that this is under water restricts the trafficability and so forth, but over time that will clear up." Petraeus said that as the flood waters recede, the river will actually become shallower and easier to cross. He also said that this event will not prove to be a decisive hindrance to Ukraine. "I think they are going to crack the Russians. I think the Russians will prove to be quite brittle."
Before the breach, the Kakhovka Reservoir was 5–20 km (3.1–12.4 mi) wide, and quite difficult for an army to cross. As of 20 June, satellite images show that it has reverted to a river 500–1,000 m (1,600–3,300 ft) wide with the flood plain on either side rapidly drying out. In some places it seems that it could be possible to cross the Dnieper River in a 4WD. It has been asserted that the Ukrainian military could take advantage of this, and of the fact that the Russians have moved troops from that area to buttress their forces in Zaporizhzhia and the Donbas, to cross the Dnieper by assault. In addition, the Ukrainians control the dams and reservoirs on the Dnieper upstream from Kakhovka, and could choose to hold more water there to dry up the river downstream and make it easier to cross.
Water from the dam reservoir supplies Southern Ukraine, Crimea, and the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. As floods affected water pipes in Southern Ukraine, President Zelenskyy said that hundreds of thousands of people do not have "normal access to drinking water" in the region. Residents were urged to boil water for potential contamination. The United Nations later estimated that about 700,000 people in the area were in need of clean drinking water, while over a million people in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast alone were expected to face water shortages.
A minimum water level in the Kakhovka Reservoir of 12.7 m (42 ft) is needed to provide cooling water for the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. However there are several alternative sources adequate for essential cooling water while the reactors are in their current shutdown state. The International Atomic Energy Agency Director General said "Our current assessment is that there is no immediate risk to the safety of the plant".
The head of Ukraine's hydropower generating company Ukrhydroenergo announced that the water level had dropped below the "dead" point of 12.7 m (42 ft), meaning that water could no longer be withdrawn for settlements and for the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. How low it could go would depend on whether the lower part of the dam had been destroyed to its base. If so, the water level would reach about 3 m (9.8 ft) and the width of the reservoir would decrease from 3.5 km (2.2 mi) to 1–1.2 km (0.62–0.75 mi). Initially, the water level was reported to fall 0.35 m (1 ft 2 in) per hour. Twenty-four hours after the breach, the water level at Nikopol had fallen 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) and stood at 14.41 m (47.3 ft). After 48 hours the level was 13.05 m (42.8 ft). Ukrhydroenergo announced on 26 June that the Kakhovka Reservoir had become "catastrophically" shallow. The average level of the lower pool near the dam was 12.88 m (42.3 ft). On 25 June the average depth of the reservoir was 7–8 m (23–26 ft), and could go to 3 m (9.8 ft). According to the Ukrainian Hydromedical Center the Dnipro River water level at Kherson had returned to its level before the dam was destroyed. Before the destruction of the dam the water level was over 17 m (56 ft).
Oleksandr Kubrakov, Minister of Infrastructure of Ukraine, announced on 3 July that Ukraine had begun the construction from scratch of three pipelines totaling almost 150 km (93 mi) in order to supply drinking water to more than 1 million people from Zaporizhzhia, Kherson, Mykolayiv, and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts. He announced that ₴1.5 billion ($41M USD) had been allocated to this from the Fund for Dealing with the Aftermath of Armed Aggression, which as of 15 May had a total of ₴61.6 billion ($1.6B USD).
Ukrhydroenergo also announced that it was working on a project to build an "overlay" across the dam and hydroelectric station that would restore water levels to the levels before the explosion. The overlay project would start once Russian forces leave the east side of the Dnieper and would be expected to take two months. Conversely, according to the Russian-installed governor of Kherson Vladimir Saldo, any restoration work on the dam and power plant will be performed by the Russian side, and only after Ukrainian troops are pushed away to a safe distance. There has been no announcement of a resolution to this impasse.
On 21 June, satellite images revealed that the reservoir had significantly dried up, exposing shallower parts, revealing the original course of the Dnipro and leading to the disconnection of four canal networks. As of 20 June, the reservoir’s water surface area had shrunk to 509.2 km2 (196.6 sq mi), less than a quarter of its former area.
A number of new wells are being dug to provide for the local water needs. According to Andriy Volodin, who is overseeing the work of digging new wells, after the water drained from the reservoir the water table in the area fell dramatically. Before the dam was destroyed, wells would reach groundwater at 38 m (125 ft) but by September they had to drill 60–70 m (200–230 ft). According to Volodin, "The weight of the Kakhovka Reservoir used to push the water up toward the surface. Now the pressure is gone, and it has receded." He said that the water from these wells, though a bit salty, will suffice for irrigation.
North Crimean Canal
North Crimean Canal Intake
The North Crimean Canal, normally active from March until December, is more than 400 km (250 mi) long and has traditionally supplied 85% of Crimea's water. Up to 80% of this water was used in agriculture and 60% of that was used for rice farming and pond fish farming. The southern coast around Sevastopol has its own water resources, so canal water is mostly needed in central and northern Crimea. After the Russian takeover of Crimea in 2014, Ukraine blocked the canal, resulting in eight years of halted water flow, which was only unblocked in March 2022 after the Russians gained control of Kherson Oblast. Land used for farming shrank from 450,000 to 15,000 hectares (1,112,000 to 37,000 acres), and rice and buckwheat cultivation had to be stopped.
The canal begins at Tavriisk, where the water intake is just upstream from the destroyed dam. The Russian-installed mayor of Nova Kakhovka said that the dam's destruction would cause "problems" with water supplies to Crimea from the North Crimean Canal. According to Dmitry Peskov, Vladimir Putin's press secretary, the dam's destruction was a "calculated Ukrainian attempt to choke off water supplies" to Crimea. "Clearly one of the aims of this act of sabotage was to deprive Crimea of water – the water level in the reservoir is dropping and, accordingly, the water supply to the canal is being drastically reduced," he said. The Crimean occupation authority said that there was "no threat of the North Crimean Canal losing water". The reservoirs on the peninsula were filled to about 80% according to Sergey Aksyonov, the head of the Russian-annexed, but internationally unrecognised, Republic of Crimea.
On 10 June 2023 the Institute for the Study of War referenced a Russian video reportedly showing that the North Crimean Canal had become dry, contradicting the recent Russian statements that there was no threat of the canal losing water. The Ukrainians accused the Russians of not having a clear plan on how to solve the problem, and trying to avoid the issue and resorting to propaganda in order to prevent panic among the local population instead of working in terms of infrastructure.
Ihor Syrota, the head of Ukraine's hydro electric company Ukrhydroenergo, said on 12 June 2023 that given that the water level in the Kakhovka Reservoir is much lower than the intake level of the North Crimean Canal, water would not flow to Crimea through the canal "for at least a year".
According to Christopher Binnie, a water engineer specializing in dams and water resources development, "Pumping for water supply to the Crimea could restart fairly soon." Sergey Aksyonov said that by installing pumps on the Dnieper River, up to 40 m³/sec could be supplied to the canal, and that this would improve the situation.
The normal flow rate of water in the North Crimean Canal seems to be subject to some disagreement, but according to the Ukrainian State Agency for Water Resources the normal water flow rate in the head of the canal is 82 m³/sec. Concurring roughly with this is Agribusiness Global (90 m³/sec), so the proposed rate by pumping would result in half the normal rate. Water flows through the North Crimean Canal by gravity until it reaches the Dzhankoi district, where it meets the first of a series of pumping stations that must pump it uphill. The first pumping station has a capacity of about 70 m³/sec. According to First Deputy Prime Minister of Russian-annexed Crimea, Rustam Temirgaliyev in 2014, the normal flow of water through the North Crimean Canal was 50 m³/sec. A number of other sources also report this figure. Euromaidan Press reports 294 m³/sec as does another source. On the high end is a source reporting 380 m³/sec, with 80 m³/sec of this going to Kherson and the remainder going to Crimea. According to a 2023 study, in the early 1990s annual water flows into the canal from the reservoir reached 3.5 km³, but a more economical use of water reduced this to 1.5 km³, of which 0.5 km³ were used in the Kherson region and 1.0 km³ in Crimea. In 2014, after the annexation of Crimea, this was reduced to 0.5 km³, according to the study. 1.5 km³ is the amount of water that would result from a flow of 47.5 m³/sec for one year.
The average flow in the Dnieper River is about 1,670 m³/sec. The amount of water flowing past the intake point of the North Crimean Canal is regulated by the five reservoirs upstream on the Dnieper River, all controlled by Ukraine. Two major canals take in water upstream from the North Crimean Canal, from what was originally the Kakhovka Reservoir: the Kakhovsky Canal and the Dnieper-Kryvyi Rih canal. Also taking water from the former Kakhovka Reservoir were various minor irrigation systems, freshwater fish farms, and systems supplying water to cities such as Zaporizhzhia. The total withdrawal of water from the Kakhovka Reservoir just for large canals was estimated at 900 m³/sec.
The area that had been irrigated by the Kakhovka Reservoir typically receives 100—120 mm (4 to 5 inches) of rainfall during the summer growing season, which is ordinarily not enough for all crops to thrive unless irrigated. Before the Dnieper River was dammed to create the Kakhovka reservoir, most of Kherson and Zaporizhzhia were arid areas. According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Agriculture, the destruction of the dam will leave 584,000 hectares (1,440,000 acres or 5,840 km² or 2,255 mi²) of land without irrigation, turning them into "deserts". In 2021, farmers harvested from this land about 4 million tons of grains and oilseeds, representing about 4% of Ukraine's grains and oilseeds production. 94% of the irrigation systems in Kherson, 74% of those in Zaporizhzhia and 30% of those in Dnipro regions will be without water. Even without the disaster, Ukraine's grains and oilseeds production was expected to be down 8% from the output of 2022, and down 36% from the output of 2021 (the year before the war began), according to the Ukrainian Grain Association.
Oleksandr Krasnolutskyi, Ukraine’s deputy minister of environmental protection and natural resources, stated that the floodwater has washed away the topsoil layers from thousands of hectares of farms and arable lands. "We will not be able to cultivate agricultural plants on this soil for many years ahead," he said.
Ukraine is in no danger of famine. Before the war Ukraine harvested 50 million tons of grain but the domestic need was only 20 million tons. The dam disaster, however, will lead to lower farming revenue for Ukraine and could result in food shortages on world markets and potentially famine in poor countries that rely on Ukrainian grain exports.
The Ukrainian government has announced financial assistance for farmers affected by the dam destruction in the amount of ₴3,318 ($90 USD) for a vegetable harvest loss of 0.01 hectares (0.025 acres), with a maximum of 0.2 hectares (0.49 acres) in the Mykolaiv region and 0.3 hectares (0.74 acres) in the Kherson region.
In an interview on 13 July 2023 Mykola Solskyi, Minister of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine, stated that as a result of draining the Kakhovka Reservoir 11,400 tons of fish were lost, worth ₴9.8 billion ($267M USD). He said that 85 fisheries were destroyed — 49 in the Kakhovka Reservoir and 36 in the Dnieper–Bug estuary. The Kakhovka Reservoir served as a habitat to at least 43 fish species, 20 of which have commercial importance (with annual catches up to 2.6 thousand tons). It has been estimated that it would take at least 7–10 years to restore the lost fish stocks.
The destruction of the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant has resulted in the loss of 350 MW of hydro-generation capacity in the region, which is enough to power 350,000 typical European homes.
Costs of reconstruction
In March 2023 (prior to the destruction of the dam) a joint assessment was released by the Government of Ukraine, the World Bank, the European Commission, and the United Nations, estimating the total cost of reconstruction and recovery in Ukraine to be $411 billion USD (€383 billion). This could eventually exceed $1 trillion (€911 billion), depending on the course of the war.
Ivan Perehinets, a department head at Ukraine's Academy of Construction, said in an interview on 19 June with Ukrainian Radio that it would cost $60–70 billion (€55-64 billion) to restore housing and infrastructure in Kherson Oblast that was damaged by the destruction of the dam, and that reconstruction efforts would take five to ten years and require 1.5 million workers.
Ruslan Strilets, Ukrainian Minister of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, said on 21 June that the destruction of the dam caused an initial $1.5 billion of damage, and also warned that Russian mines released by flooding could float onto the shores of other European countries. A separate estimate by the Ukrainian Agriculture Ministry tallied damage to water reclamation systems and canals at ₴150-160 billion ($4.1-$4.3 billion). According to an analysis by the Kyiv School of Economics the direct losses caused by the dam collapse amounted to at least $2 billion, with indirect costs adding much more.
The use of Russian frozen assets to pay these costs is being considered but institutions such as the European Central Bank insist that the eurozone's financial stability, as well as the strength of its common currency, depend on stabilizing mechanisms such as sovereign immunity and the various international treaties that are in place, and finding a way to confiscate the frozen assets without violating such principles and treaties has proven to be elusive.
The Ukrainian Ministry of Reintegration reported on 23 August that the government had allocated Hr 4.6 billion ($124 million) towards reconstruction measures for the Kakhovka dam, adding that around Hr 1.3 billion ($35 million) had been allocated to the reconstruction of damaged and destroyed homes in the flood zone. The Ministry said that the funds would enable affected residents to "have the resources to repair their homes before winter". More than 340 applications for compensation for crop losses were submitted and payments of Hr 2.7 million had been established.
Ukraine has begun the second stage of the "eRestore" program, designed to compensate residents for housing destroyed or damaged during the war. The first stage, begun in May 2023, was limited to ₴200,000 per house ($5,400 USD), and 1,400 applicants received ₴114 million ($3.1 million USD). The second stage, begun 18 July, will not have restrictions on the amount of compensation but certain limitations apply, and the amount to be compensated will be calculated according to a specific formula. Stage two was described as a "beta test" and will only be operational in two villages in the Kyiv region, but if successful it could be expanded to regions affected by the flooding when the dam collapsed.
According to former Deputy Prosecutor General of Ukraine Gyunduz Mamedov, Ukraine should apply to the Secretary General of the UN to establish an advisory council in response to the violation of the Environmental Modification Convention, to which both Ukraine and Russia are party. Mamedov also said that a case should be submitted to the International Court of Justice to obtain compensation for the damage caused.
Greenpeace legal advisor Daniel Simons said on 13 June 2023 that a trial against the perpetrator of the dam destruction could be launched in the International Criminal Court (ICC), in The Hague, if sufficient evidence appears. "Article 8(2)(b)(iv) of the Rome Statute of the [International Criminal Court] qualifies as a crime the intentional attack that causes extensive, lasting, and serious damage to the surrounding natural environment, which will be clearly excessive in comparison with concrete and immediately expected general military advantage," he said. ICC investigators were already evaluating evidence of damage caused to critical and civilian infrastructure in Ukraine in order to determine whether criminal charges were warranted. Russia, the United States and China have all refused to submit to the ICC. The ICC has already issued an arrest warrant for Russian president Vladimir Putin, in connection with the illegal transfer of children from occupied Ukraine, so he could be arrested if he were to set foot in any of the court's 123 member states. The ICC does not conduct trials in absentia, so no ICC trial against Putin will take place as long as he remains in Russia.
Both Russia and Ukraine have appealed to the International Criminal Court (ICC) and to the International Court of Justice (also known as the World Court), claiming that the other side is at fault.
The destruction of the dam has been described by Western leaders as a war crime; Article 56 of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (which both Russia and Ukraine have ratified) prohibits the deliberate destruction of "installations containing dangerous forces" such as dams.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said, "The destruction of the Kakhovka hydroelectric power plant dam by Russian terrorists only confirms for the whole world that they must be expelled from every corner of Ukrainian land." Andriy Yermak, the Head of the Office of the President of Ukraine, called the destruction of the dam "ecocide". The Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said, "We call on the international community to resolutely condemn the Russian terrorist attack on the Kakhovka HPP (Hydroelectric Power Plant)", calling for a UNSC session and a meeting with the IAEA. Ukraine's Prosecutor General said it was investigating the destruction as a war crime.
Ukrainian foreign minister Dmytro Kuleba criticized the international media for initially presenting the Ukrainian and Russian claims as equally credible, arguing that this "put facts and propaganda on [an] equal footing."
Former Ukrainian Minister of Ecology Ostap Semerak said: "This will have an impact on Romania, Georgia, Turkey and Bulgaria. It will be harmful for all the region. Our government has announced this is the biggest environmental catastrophe in Europe over the past 10 years, and I think it may be the worst in Ukraine since Chornobyl in 1986."
Russian authorities blamed Ukraine, and Russian president Vladimir Putin called it "a barbaric act which has led to a large-scale environmental and humanitarian catastrophe". Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov called it a "sabotage" as a result of the Ukrainian armed forces "not achieving their goals". Minister of Defence Sergey Shoigu said that Ukraine blew up the dam to "prevent Russian offensive in this sector of the front". Vladimir Saldo, the Russian-installed governor of occupied Kherson oblast, said the dam breach "is operationally and tactically in favour of Russian forces". TASS reported that flooding made a Ukrainian crossing of the Dnieper impossible. Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said the incident should be subject to a "worldwide study, research and investigation" and accused the West of having an "endless desire to blame Russia for everything". On 13 June Putin once again spoke on the subject and stated that the destruction of the dam "thwarted Ukrainian offensive", and further suggested past HIMARS strikes were responsible for the disaster.
António Guterres, the UN Secretary-General, called the collapse "another devastating consequence of the Russian invasion of Ukraine", and said "Attacks against civilians and critical civilian infrastructure must stop." NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg called the event "outrageous" and said it showed "the brutality of Russia's war in Ukraine". European Council President Charles Michel called the blowing up of a hydroelectric power plant a war crime on the part of Russia. The Council of Europe stated: "We condemn in the strongest terms the destruction of the Nova Kakhovka dam in the Kherson region of Ukraine".
President of Romania Klaus Iohannis condemned the destruction of the dam and referred to it as "another war crime by Russia against innocent civilians". He also called for Russia to be held accountable and expressed his sympathy with the victims. The Moldovan President Maia Sandu and Prime Minister Dorin Recean condemned the incident and said Moldova was ready to provide help to Ukraine to mitigate the flood damage. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz said "this is aggression by the Russian side to stop the Ukrainian offensive". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic said Russia's actions were "deliberately endangering the lives of tens of thousands" of civilians and "must be condemned and punished". British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak said it was too early to definitively say Russia was responsible for the breach, and that British intelligence agencies were investigating the cause. British Foreign Secretary James Cleverly, who was in Ukraine at the time, said "the only reason this is an issue at all is because of Russia's unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine." France's Emmanuel Macron said it was an "atrocious act". France also said it was delivering aid including water purifiers, 500,000 water purification tablets and hygiene kits to assist people displaced by the disaster. The German Marshall Fund released a report on 21 June 2023 saying that Russia has launched an "aggressive" propaganda campaign to blame Ukraine for the Kakhovka Dam collapse.
China's permanent representative to the United Nations, Zhang Jun, called "on all parties to the conflict to abide by international humanitarian law and do their utmost to protect civilians and civilian infrastructure." Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's office said after the call with Zelenskyy that "a commission could be established with the participation of experts from the warring parties, the United Nations and the international community, including Turkey, for a detailed investigation into the explosion at Kakhovka dam."
On 6 June, Ukrainian colonel Anatolii Shtefan said that Russian forces had blown up private ponds close to the villages of Peremozhne and Hannivka in occupied Zaporizhzhia Oblast to stop an incoming Ukrainian counteroffensive in the region. Floods on fields on other villages of the area were also reported, more precisely in Petrivka, Viazivka and Yelizavetivka, though also in others. Intentional flooding has been reported in the general area of the former Yakymivka Raion and also around the town of Tokmak.
On 7 June, Ihor Syrota, head of Ukrhydroenergo, said that it would take "at least 5 years [and] $1 billion" to rebuild the dam. On 15 June he added that an additional year would be necessary to build upper and lower jumpers, and then dismantle the station, for a total of six years.
On 18 July, Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal announced the government's approval of a plan to rebuild the Hydroelectric Power Plant, which would last two years and involve two stages: designing all engineering structures and preparing the necessary base for restoration, and the actual construction work, which was to commence upon the removal of Russian forces from the area. The proposed two year time estimate is significantly less than the previous estimate of six years given by Ukrhydroenergo.
According to a study published in August 2023, in just one year a temporary dam could be constructed near the site of the destroyed dam which would allow the refilling of the reservoir to at least 12.7 m (42 ft). This would allow water to be provided to all consumers, but there would be no hydropower or shipping. (The impact of the temporary absence of hydropower would be limited, since the amount of electricity produced at the Zaporizhzhia nuclear powerplant, the Kryvyi Rih thermal powerplant and the Zaporizhzhia thermal power plant exceeds the amount that had been generated by the Kakhovka hydropower plant by more than an order of magnitude.) This would allow an additional 350,000 hectares (860,000 acres) of land to be irrigated, according to the study. At the same time, the construction of a permanent dam and hydropower plant could be started. Furthermore, according to the study, they made an error when constructing the original Kakhovka powerplant with only six hydropower units having a capacity of passing only 2600 m³/s. The new powerplant should have at least eight units and a discharge capacity of at least 4000 m³/s.
It has been reported that Rostec, a Russian state-owned defense conglomerate, plans to build 9 seawater desalination plants in Crimea by 2030, with a total capacity of about 1 billion m³ of freshwater per year. This is the amount of water that flowed annually to Crimea through the North Crimean Canal prior to 2014, according to a 2023 study. The problem is that these plants would require half the power generated for use by Crimea and Sevastopol in 2023. The expected cost would be ₽78 billion ($808 million USD). Two such plants are planned by 2023, costing ₽7.8 billion ($80.8 million USD).
On 8 June, Zelenskyy visited flooded areas of Kherson Oblast, including the city of Kherson. Reports appeared on the same day that Russia was shelling Kherson and other localities of the region as evacuation efforts continued.
On 11 June, Ukrainian media and authorities claimed that Russian forces demolished a smaller dam, near the village of Kliuchove on the Mokri Yaly river in Donetsk Oblast, to slow down Ukrainian advances.
On 13 June, Ukrainian Ministry of Defense Environmental Safety Department and Mine Action representative Major Vladyslav Dudar reported that Russian forces have placed mines at a large number of small dams in Zaporizhzhia and Kherson, and were destroying a number of them every day to disrupt Ukrainian counteroffensive operations.
On 12 June, Ukrainian intelligence claimed that Russia was mining the workshops of the Crimean Titan chemical factory in Armiansk, the explosion of which was feared to cause a major disaster. According to retired Ukrainian colonel Roman Svitan, a destruction of the factory would temporarily hinder a hypothetical Ukrainian attack into Russian-controlled Crimea unless Ukrainian troops were given chemical protection suits.
On 7 June, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, in separate calls with Presidents Putin and Zelenskyy, proposed an international commission to investigate the destruction of the Kakhovka dam. Erdogan said that such "a commission could be established with the participation of experts from the warring parties, the United Nations and the international community, including Turkey, for a detailed investigation into the explosion". Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba reacted negatively toward the proposal: "We have already had this experience. This is all a giveaway game with the Russians. When our prisoners of war were killed in Olenivka and we told the UN: send your mission, let them investigate. Do you think they got there? They didn't get there. I'll tell you more: this mission was quietly shut down by the United Nations, which is called "no noise or dust". He called the proposal a "game of quasi-justice", and added, "We’ve already been there. It’s all just a game to indulge the Russians." The reference to Olenivka was a reference to a fact-finding mission by the UN into the killing of 53 Ukrainian prisoners of war held by the Russians that was disbanded when the Russians denied access to the remaining prisoners.
The UN announced on 18 June that Russia has declined its requests to access the areas it occupied in order to deliver humanitarian aid. The UN urged the Russian authorities to act in accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law. According to defense analyst Edward Stringer, the reasons for this Russian refusal appear to be that (a) Russians have shown no interest in helping Ukrainian civilians (quite the opposite, he said), and (b) Russians don’t want outside eyes into that area since there are credible reports that they are using the flooding as a defense and so are moving some of the troops that were positioned there away further to the east, to those areas where they are expecting the main thrust of the Ukrainian counteroffensive.
- International sanctions during the Russian invasion of Ukraine
- 2022–2023 Russian strikes against Ukrainian infrastructure
- Attacks on civilians in the Russian invasion of Ukraine
- Impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on nuclear power plants
- Deliberate Soviet dam destruction in Ukraine during World War II
- Scorched earth
- 2022 Irpin river Kozarovychi dam opening, flooding Demydiv
Similar international events:
- 1914 inundation on the Yser in Flanders during World War I
- 1938 Yellow River flood, a similar human-made wartime river flood
- 1943 Operation Chastise, Allied attack on German dams during World War II
- 1945 Dutch floods during World War II
- 1952 Attack on the Sui-ho Dam
- 2014 Battle for Mosul Dam, during the War in Iraq (2013–2017)
- Itaipu dam, caused concern that in times of conflict could be used as a weapon to flood Buenos Aires
- Proposed bombing of Vietnam's dikes
- See § Responsibility for more details.
- "Russia rejects U.N. help as death toll from breached dam rises". Reuters. 19 June 2023.
- "Russian official says breach of Kakhovka dam in Ukraine killed 41". Al-Arabiya. 21 June 2023.
- Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 6, 2023, Institute for the Study of War, 6 June 2023, Wikidata Q119224855, archived from the original on 7 June 2023
- "Nova Kakhovka residents heard explosions before flooding of Kakhovka HPP: Here's what we know about the destruction of the dam on the Dnipro". The Insider. 6 June 2023. Wikidata Q119233154. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023.
- "Seismic signals recorded from an explosion at the Kakhovka Dam in Ukraine". www.jordskjelv.no. 7 June 2023. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- Sabbagh, Dan; Borger, Julian (6 June 2023). "Thousands flee homes as collapse of dam is blamed on Russian forces". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Glanz, James; Santora, Marc; Pérez-Peña, Richard (6 June 2023). "Internal Blast Probably Breached Ukraine Dam, Experts Say (Cautiously)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Glanz, James; Santora, Marc; Robles, Pablo; Willis, Haley; Leatherby, Lauren; Koettl, Christoph; Khavin, Dmitriy (16 June 2023). "An Inside Job". The New York Times.
- "Diagram: Ukraine's Kakhovka Hydrolectric Power Plant". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- Ivana Kottasová, Gianluca Mezzofiore (8 June 2023). "Here are the key theories on what caused Ukraine's catastrophic dam collapse". CNN. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "The Kakhovka Dam Disaster: Responsibility and Consequences". Wilson Center. 14 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- "Очільник Херсонської ОВА: Середній рівень підтоплення на ранок - 5,6 метра. Евакуйовано майже дві тисячі людей". Зеркало недели (in Ukrainian). 8 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- Eric P. Schmitt (9 June 2023). "U.S. Official Says Spy Satellites Detected Explosion Just Before Dam Collapse". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Wikidata Q119269286. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine and Russia Agree to Extend Black Sea Grain Deal". The New York Times. 17 May 2023. Archived from the original on 20 May 2023. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- "The consequences of the Russian terrorist attack on the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP) for wildlife - Ukrainian Nature Conservation Group". Ukrainian Nature Conservation Group. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- "Convert km^3 to cubic miles". Conversion of Measurement Units. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- Brown, Steve (6 June 2023). "Damn Dams – For Ukrainians, Devastation Caused by Destruction of Dams Should Be No Surprise". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Подрыв дамбы на Днепре. Как и зачем это сделали по приказу Кремля 82 года назад". BBC (in Russian). 7 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Moroz, Dmytro; Bigg, Claire (23 August 2013). "Ukrainian Activists Draw Attention To Little-Known WWII Tragedy". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Constable, Pamela (6 June 2023). "Dam destruction a threat to Ukrainian counteroffensive, water supplies". Washington Post.
- bbarclay (8 April 2022). "Weaponising water — Ukraine's dams are targets in Putin's war". International Rivers. Archived from the original on 5 October 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "The war put the water reservoir of the Kharkiv region on the verge of ecological disaster". ЭкоПолитика. 16 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 January 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- David Axe (6 June 2023). "Last Fall A Russian Brigade Nearly Blew Up Ukraine's Dnipro River Dam. Eight Months Later The Russians Finally Pulled The Trigger". Forbes. ISSN 0015-6914. Wikidata Q119295513. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023.
- Tanas, Alexander (31 October 2022). "Debris of Russian missile downed by Ukraine lands in Moldovan village". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 October 2022. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Bilefsky, Dan (20 October 2022). "Zelensky says Russia plans to blow up a major dam in a 'false flag' attack, flooding southern Ukraine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 29 May 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, OCTOBER 19". Institute for the Study of War. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
- "Ukraine's Zelenskyy accuses Russia of planning to destroy dam". Al Jazeera. 21 October 2022. Archived from the original on 27 May 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Inside the Ukrainian counteroffensive that shocked Putin and reshaped the war". Washington Post. 29 December 2022. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- English, Al Mayadeen (3 January 2023). "Ukraine considered destroying Nova Kakhovka dam: WaPo". Al Mayadeen English. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- "Damage to Russian-occupied dam submerges Ukrainian reservoir island community". AP NEWS. 25 May 2023. Archived from the original on 25 May 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Surveillance video from November 2022 shows explosions at the Kakhovka dam". NBC News. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "What we know about Nova Kakhovka dam attack". BBC News. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Russia is draining a massive Ukrainian reservoir, endangering a nuclear plant". NPR. 10 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Hunder, Max (25 May 2023). "Ukraine blames Russian-occupied dam as village grapples with flooding". Reuters. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- Sheldon, Michael (29 June 2023). "Satellite Imagery Reveals Russia Caused Flooding in Occupied Ukrainian Town Before Counter Offensive". bellingcat. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- Coynash, Halya (6 June 2023). "Not Kakhovka Dam alone: Russia destroys dams in occupied Zaporizhzhia oblast". Human Rights in Ukraine. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Оккупанты в Запорожской области разрушают и строят дамбы, чтобы усложнить контрнаступление ВСУ". Центр журналистских расследований (in Russian). 7 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- Vasilisa Stepanenko; Lori Hinnant (25 May 2023). "Damage to Russian-occupied dam submerges Ukrainian reservoir island community". apnews.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 25 May 2023. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
Since mid-February, the water level in the reservoir has steadily increased, according to data from Theia, a French geospatial analytical organization. An Associated Press analysis of satellite imagery showed the water has now risen so high that it's washing over the top of the damaged Russian-occupied dam downstream.
- "What Hydroweb data shows about the Kakhovka dam failure – Theia". www.theia-land.fr. 13 June 2023.
- "Damage to Russian-occupied dam floods Ukrainian island community". Al Jazeera. 25 May 2023. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Beaumont, Peter (9 June 2023). "A visual guide to the collapse of Ukraine's Nova Kakhovka dam". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- "Sitrep for Jun. 17-19, 2023 (as of 09:30 a.m.)". Conflict Intelligence Team. 19 June 2023. Archived from the original on 20 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "Kakhovka HPP, the discharge of Dnieper water can lead to a catastrophe". YouTube. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- Boffey, Daniel (19 June 2023). "Kakhovka collapse: image emerges of apparently explosive-laden car at dam". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
- "Russia decided accidents at hazardous facilities would not be investigated shortly before blowing up Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant". Ukrainska Pravda. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Brugen, Isabel van (9 June 2023). "Russia's "smoking gun" on Ukraine dam collapse". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- "What we know about a large dam's catastrophic breach in Ukraine". NPR. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Andrew Barr on roadway collapse". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- "Geoff Brumfiel". NPR. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "gbrumfiel". Twitter. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- Hird, Karolina; Bailey, Riley; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Wolkov, Nicole; Barros, George; Kagan, Fredrick W. (6 June 2023). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 6, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
- "Explainer: What the Kakhovka Dam Catastrophe Means For the Ukraine-Russia War". The Moscow Times. 6 June 2023. ISSN 1563-6275. Wikidata Q119141426. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023.
- "Huge explosions breach the Kakhovka dam in southern Ukraine". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Borger, Julian; Sauer, Pjotr (9 June 2023). "Seismic data adds to evidence Ukraine's Kakhovka dam was blown up". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "a Norwegian institute claims to have recorded an "explosion" the night the dam was destroyed". DayFR Euro. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
- "Seismic wave - Earth's Interior Structure & Movement". Encyclopedia Britannica. 12 January 2000. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
- "About GARD - Christopher Binnie". Abingdon Reservoir. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
- "Expert reaction to reported attack on Ukraine's Kakhovka dam". Science Media Centre. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- "Nick G Glumac". Mechanical Science & Engineering. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Ben DANDO - Norsar, Lillestrøm - Test Ban Treaty Verification". ResearchGate. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Volker Oye - Department of Geosciences". Forside - Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- "Seismic stations detected explosion at Ukrainian dam around the time it collapsed". NPR. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- "Sitrep for Jun. 6-7, 2023 (as of 08:30 a.m.)". Conflict Intelligence Team. 7 June 2023. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "Sitrep for Jun. 8-10, 2023 (as of 08:00 a.m.)". Conflict Intelligence Team. 10 June 2023. Archived from the original on 22 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "Sitrep for Jun. 19-20, 2023 (as of 08:30 a.m.)". Conflict Intelligence Team. 20 June 2023. Archived from the original on 22 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "Barr, Andrew, Dr". The University of Sheffield. 24 May 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
- "Three components of dam". Twitter. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
- "Barrage gone first". Twitter. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
- "Explosive damage should be easy to spot". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- "HPP was by explosion". Twitter. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
- "Separate explosion HPP". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- "Embankment last". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- "Embankment vulnerable". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- "Seismic activity adds to evidence that explosion caused Ukraine dam collapse". NBC News. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
- Hakimian, Rob (8 June 2023). "Industry specialists assess damage on Ukraine's breached Nova Kakhovka dam". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
- "Before after". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
- Dahm, Julia (7 June 2023). "Ukraine fears food production, export losses after dam destruction". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
- Anthony Deutsch (16 June 2023). "Highly likely Russia behind Ukraine dam collapse, experts say". Reuters. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- Macias, Amanda (16 June 2023). "Russian forces 'highly likely' behind attack on Ukrainian dam, international law investigation says". CNBC. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Creation of Atrocity Crimes Advisory Group for Ukraine". United States Department of State. 26 May 2022. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Ukraine Advisory Group (ACA)". United States Department of State. 5 January 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 17, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 17 June 2023. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- "The causes, chronology, and culprits of a man-made disaster at the Kakhovska HPP". Molfar analytics. 9 June 2023. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
- Brugen, Isabel van (9 June 2023). "Why Russia's story on Kakhovka dam breach doesn't stack up". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- Melkozerova, Veronika (9 June 2023). "Ukraine says it intercepted call in which Russians admit they blew up dam". POLITICO. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- "Ukraine says Russian forces blew up Nova Kakhovka dam in Kherson". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Russia-Ukraine war live: evacuations under way near Kherson after Kyiv accuses Moscow of destroying dam". The Guardian. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
The Russian-imposed mayor of the occupied settlement of Nova Kakhovk near the damaged dam [Vladimir Leontyev] ... said that there was no explosion at the station, but night strikes led to the destruction and water began to uncontrollably be discharged downstream. According to him, the armed forces of Ukraine continue to shell the city. The blow to the Kakhovskaya hydroelectric power station, presumably, was delivered from an MLRS. Leontyev said that it was impossible to predict whether the Kakhovskaya HPP would continue to collapse. According to him, the hydroelectric power plant suffered serious damage and it was impossible to repair it. He stated that the destruction at the station would lead to problems in the delivery of water to the Crimea.
- "Evacuations begin after a major dam in southern Ukraine is heavily damaged". NPR. 6 June 2023.
- "Минобороны сообщило о срыве крупномасштабного наступления ВСУ". TACC. Archived from the original on 5 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Official: Kakhovka dam was blown up by Russia's 205th Motorized Rifle Brigade". The Kyiv Independent. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Meliozerova, Veronika (9 June 2023). "Ukraine says it intercepted call in which Russians admit they blew up dam". Politico. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Про нас". Slidstvo.info (in Ukrainian). 1 February 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Схеми: корупція в деталях". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- Pravda, Ukrainska (28 June 2023). "Media identified Russian soldiers holding Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant when it exploded". Yahoo News. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Russian military in control of Kakhovka dam during breach identified by Ukrainian journalists". Euromaidan Press. 29 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- Химерик, Юлія; Шабаєв, Георгій; Овсяний, Кирило; Савчук, Максим; Івлєва, Ольга (28 June 2023). ""Выйти не могут, все затоплено". Про що говорили окупанти під час підриву Каховської ГЕС: телефонні перехоплення". Slidstvo.info (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- Савчук, Максим; Івлєва, Ольга; Шабаєв, Георгій; Овсяний, Кирило (28 June 2023). ""В готовности! Всё по команде!". Ідентифіковані армійці РФ, які контролювали Каховську ГЕС. Ексклюзивні перехоплення". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Russians have long been planning to blow up the Kakhovka HPP dam, but they did not expect such consequences, – media expert". Freedom. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Peleschuk, Dan (9 June 2023). "Ukraine security service says it intercepted call proving Russia destroyed Kakhovka dam". Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Parliament calls on NATO to invite Ukraine to join the alliance - News". European Parliament. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Collapse of critical Ukrainian dam sparks region-wide evacuations. Here's what we know". CNN. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- ""Это преднамеренная диверсия украинской стороны". Кремль — о прорыве плотины на Каховской ГЭС". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Interior Minister: 10 dead, 42 missing due to Kakhovka dam disaster". Kyiv Independent. 12 June 2023.
- "Nova Kakhovka Dam Breach: Before And After Satellite Images Reveal Destruction". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Kakhovka dam collapse before and after: satellite images reveal extent of flood disaster in Ukraine". the Guardian. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- the Visual Journalism & BBC Verify teams (7 June 2023). "Ukraine dam: Maps and before and after images reveal scale of disaster". BBC News. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- Drummond, Michael (7 June 2023). "Nova Kakhovka dam: Satellite images reveal scale of destruction wrought on Ukraine's landscape". Sky News. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Ukraine says Russia blew up major dam 'from inside', endangering thousands of people and a nuclear plant". CBS News. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Bodies floating in flooded areas after dam collapse: Zelenskyy". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2023. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "The disastrous bursting of Ukraine's Nova Kakhovka dam – and the battle that is to come". The Guardian. 10 June 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Houses affected by flooding in Ukraine's village of Vasylivka". Anadolu Agency. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Humeniuk: Enemy continues shelling right bank of Kherson region despite evacuation measures". www.ukrinform.net. 7 June 2023.
- Ronzheimer, Paul; Sheftalovich, Zoya (7 June 2023). "Russians shooting at rescuers in flooded areas, Zelenskyy says". Politico Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Davies, Alys (12 June 2023). "Kherson flooding: Ukraine evacuation boat attacked by Russia, killing three". BBC.
- Adler, Nils (6 June 2023). "Russia-Ukraine live news: Moscow accused of blowing up dam / State of emergency declared in Nova Kakhovka district: TASS". Aljazeera. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Stepanenko, Vasilisa; Blann, Susie (6 June 2023). "Collapse of major dam in southern Ukraine triggers emergency as Moscow and Kyiv trade blame". apnews.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "В зону затопления поврежденной Каховской ГЭС попали прибрежные зоны 14 населенных пунктов" (in Russian). Interfax. 6 June 2023.
- "Ukraine says Nova Kakhovka dam blast will not stop military plans". Aljazeera. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Ministry: Dnipro River returns to its banks after flooding caused by Kakhovka Dam explosion". The Kyiv Independent. 25 June 2023.
- "Destruction of Ukraine's biggest dam impacts the environment". IFAW. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Pannett, Rachel (7 June 2023). "A Ukrainian zoo survived through war. The Kakhovka flood ended it". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Novaya Kakhovka refutes Ukrainian media reports about alleged deaths of zoo animals". TASS. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Did Trapped Zoo Animals Drown After the Nova Kakhovka Dam Collapse?". Snopes. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Krasteva, Gergana (6 June 2023). "Zoo animals drown in flood water after Ukrainian dam is destroyed". metro.co.uk.
- Stepanenko, Vasilisa; Blann, Susie (6 June 2023). "Ukraine accuses Russia of destroying major dam, warns of ecological disaster". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023 – via latimes.com.
- Pannett, Rachel (7 June 2023). "A Ukrainian zoo survived through war. The Kakhovka flood ended it". Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023 – via The Washington Post.
- Waterhouse, James; Mackintosh, Thomas (8 June 2023). "Ukraine dam: Dislodged mines a major concern as residents flee Kherson". BBC. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Watts, Jonathan (6 June 2023). "Dam breach could be Ukraine's 'worst ecological disaster since Chornobyl'". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- "Ukraine says more than 123,552 acres of forest flooded following Kakhovka dam blast". Anadolu Ajansı. 20 June 2023. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
- "Flooding turns Odesa's coastline into 'garbage dump and animal cemetery' after dam collapse". CNN. 18 June 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
- "General Staff: Possible cholera outbreaks in occupied part of Kherson Oblast". The Kyiv Independent. 5 July 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
- "Russian units in Kherson Oblast and Crimea, stricken in cholera outbreak, 'losing combat effectiveness'". The New Voice of Ukraine. 18 June 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
- "Скільки часу знадобиться, щоб відновити довкілля після підриву Каховської ГЕС". Рубрика (in Ukrainian). 30 June 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
- Barnes, Joe (6 June 2023). "Ukrainian dam destroyed in blow to counter-offensive". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Miller, Christopher; Seddon, Max (6 June 2023). "Military briefing: Russia has most to gain from Ukrainian dam breach". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Osborn, Andrew (7 June 2023). "Moscow-backed official says Russian army gains advantage from Ukraine dam breach". Reuters. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Brennan, David (6 June 2023). "Nova Kakhovka dam loss makes Ukraine river offensive "impossible": Adviser". Newsweek. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Southern Forces report engaging in heavy combat near Antonivsky Bridge". The Kyiv Independent. 2 July 2023.
- Martin Fornusek (19 July 2023). "UK Defense Ministry: Fighting escalates at lower Dnipro River, presents Russia with dilemma". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- Martin Fornusek (18 July 2023). "UK Defense Ministry: Ukraine maintains left-bank beachhead at Antonivsky Bridge". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- Mirovalev, Mansur (7 June 2023). "Nova Kakhovka dam blast: Is Russia trying to freeze the war? – Russia-Ukraine war News". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Kakhovka dam breach takes Ukraine war into uncharted territory". Reuters. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Bengoechea, Isabella (7 June 2023). "Who blew up Kakhovka dam? What Ukraine and Russia have said about causes of explosion". i news. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, JUNE 11, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 11 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- Михайлов, Дмитро (15 June 2023). "РФ перекидає війська з півдня України на Донбас, щоб завадити просуванню ЗСУ". Суспільне (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, JUNE 15, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- Fornusek, Martin (19 June 2023). "UK Defense Ministry: Russia redeploying troops from Dnipro River to Zaporizhzhia, Bakhmut sectors". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
- "Update on Ukraine". Twitter. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
- Petraeus, David (6 June 2023). "06/06/2023 PM". PM (Interview). PM. Interviewed by Davis, Evan. BBC Radio 4. Event occurs at 38m28s. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
Petraeus: I'm a bit mystified as to why the Russians would have done that if they did it deliberately with an explosion, given that it causes great problems for them in areas that they occupy including this particular area ... The downsides for the Russians seem to be quite considerable and that obviously raises questions about why they would have sought to cause this kind of significant downside for them. I don't see any real implications for the counteroffensive. I don't see other military implications that are particularly large. Obviously, the period of time that this is under water restricts the trafficability and so forth, but over time that will clear up. (Begins at 37:45)
- Boot, Max (9 June 2023). "The Ukrainian offensive is beginning. David Petraeus is optimistic". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- "Satellite view of Kakovka Reservoir". Twitter. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "Before and after Kakovka Reservoir". Twitter. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- Korshak, Stefan (21 June 2023). "Unintended Downstream Effect – Russia's Kakhovka Dam Destruction Maybe Made Ukraine Attack Easier". Get the Latest Ukraine News Today - KyivPost. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- "A well that runs dry. The Kakhovka dam break has dealt a major blow to Crimean authorities: the region's harvest is under threat". Novaya Gazeta Europe. 12 June 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- Kramer, Andrew E.; Sonne, Paul; Kim, Victoria (7 June 2023). "Zelensky warns that hundreds of thousands of people don't have 'normal access to drinking water'". New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Marsi, Federica; Mirovalev, Mansur (16 June 2023). "Fears of environmental disaster mount after Ukraine dam break". Aljazeera. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- "IAEA Director General to inspect Zaporizhia NPP in the aftermath of crucial dam destruction". Nuclear Engineering International. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Ukraine says water level at Kakhovka Reservoir at "dead" point". Anadolu Ajansı. 9 June 2023. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "In one day, water level in Kakhovka reservoir decreased by 2.5 metres". Yahoo News. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Kakhovka Reservoir drains by 1 metre overnight, average flood level in Kherson Oblast is 5.6 metres".
- "Ігор Сирота: для побудови нової Каховської ГЕС потрібно п'ять років, для відновлення водосховища – два". ukranews_com (in Ukrainian). 15 June 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- "Kakhovka reservoir 'catastrophically' low says Ukrhydroenergo". International Water Power. 26 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
- Communications, Notch; Robinson, Julia; Robinson, Julia (21 June 2023). "Explainer: what threat does the Kakhovka dam breach pose to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant?". Chemistry World. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
- "Ukraine begins construction of 150-km pipeline to restore water supply following Russia's destruction of the Kakhovka dam". Euromaidan Press. 4 July 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- "oleksandr.kubrakov". Facebook. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- "1,500,000,000 UAH to USD". Ukrainian Hryvni to US Dollars Exchange Rate. 4 July 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- "Ukraine warns over reservoir level after Kakhovka dam collapse". Reuters. 8 June 2023. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "THE DECREASE IN THE WATER LEVEL IN THE KAKHOVKA RESERVOIR CONTINUES". Ukrhydroenergo. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.[permanent dead link]
- English, Al Mayadeen (19 June 2023). "Over half of Ukrainian troops lost in South Donetsk: Russia MoD". Al Mayadeen English. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- "Ukraine dam: Satellite images reveal Kakhovka canals drying up". BBC. 22 June 2023.
- "Animated map of Kakhovka reservoir". Dailymotion. 6 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
- "Russian attack reduces Kakhovka Reservoir to a quarter of its size". Yahoo News. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
- Esch, Christian (14 September 2023). "Russia's Scorched Earth Policy in Ukraine: A Trip to the Dried-Up Kakhovka Reservoir". DER SPIEGEL. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
- "Canal irrigating Crimea getting 'drastically less' water after Ukraine dam blast, says Kremlin". Reuters. 6 June 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "North Crimea Canal, A History of its Construction". Euromaidan Press. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Crimean Canal Key to its Liberation". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. 31 July 2022. Archived from the original on 29 April 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- Osborn, Andrew (6 June 2023). "Canal irrigating Crimea getting 'drastically less' water after Ukraine dam blast, says Kremlin". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Північно-Кримський канал. Історія будівництва". Історична правда (in Ukrainian). 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Sonne, Paul (6 June 2023). "Russia warns that the dam's destruction is a risk to Crimea's water supply". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Osborn, Andrew (6 June 2023). "Canal irrigating Crimea getting 'drastically less' water after Ukraine dam blast, says Kremlin". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "MSN". msn.com. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "No threat to water supply via North Crimean Canal after damage to Kakhovka HPP – officials". TASS. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Charbonneau, Mirjam; Donath, Louis (27 March 2014). "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea Region". United Nations. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, JUNE 10, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 10 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- "North Crimean Canal without water". Telegram (in Kyrgyz). Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- "Окупанти в Криму не знають, як вирішити проблеми з водопостачанням через теракт на ГЕС – Центр національного спротиву". Центр національного спротиву (in Ukrainian). 10 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- Tsurkan, Kate (12 June 2023). "Ukrhydroenergo head: Kakhovka dam destruction cut off water supply to Crimea for 'at least a year'". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "Crimea increases unauthorized water withdrawal from North Crimean Canal". Ukrinform. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Nelson, Jessica (30 April 2014). "Crimean Agriculture Uncertain Amid Service Disruptions". AgriBusiness Global. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Wall posts". VK. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "Ukraine reduces water supplies to Crimea". Interfax-Ukraine. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Ukraine cuts off water supplies to Crimea". Ақ Жайық. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Ukraine reduces water supplies to Crimea by three times -- Crimea's first vice-premier". Equipo Nizkor. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Russian invaders already steal Ukraine's water worth UAH 620 mln – inspectorate". Interfax-Ukraine. 17 March 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Crimea faces motor fuel shortages". Times of Malta. 26 April 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Occupiers stealing en masse Dnipro water to Crimea. Debt may amount to billions of hryvnias". hromadske. 2 July 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Orgland, Olav Bing (7 April 2021). "Water Wars: Drought by the Dnipro, the new conflict between Russia and Ukraine". SDAFA. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- "Crimean Collaborators, Dry Canal and Fake Pumps". Association of Reintegration of Crimea. 11 June 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Vyshnevskyi, Viktor; Shevchuk, Serhii; Komorin, Viktor; Oleynik, Yurii; Gleick, Peter (4 July 2023). "The destruction of the Kakhovka dam and its consequences". Water International. Informa UK Limited. 48 (5): 631–647. doi:10.1080/02508060.2023.2247679. ISSN 0250-8060.
- "Dnieper River". Encyclopedia Britannica. 20 July 1998. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Kirk, Ashley (8 June 2023). "Maps show how Kakhovka dam collapse threatens Ukraine's bread basket". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Яцик, А. В.; Яцик, В. А. (2012). Каховське водосховище (in Ukrainian). Vol. 12. Інститут енциклопедичних досліджень НАН України. ISBN 9789660220744. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "Looming Water Crisis: Canals in Ukraine Are Drying Up Amid Global Food Supply Fears". SciTechDaily. 2 August 2023. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
- Oprishchenko, Anastasiya (6 June 2023). "Каховська ГЕС сьогодні". Заборона (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- Polityuk, Pavel (7 June 2023). "Ukraine warns over impact of Kakhovka dam collapse on farmland". Reuters. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Знищення росіянами Каховської ГЕС завдало значних збитків сільському господарству України [The destruction of the Kakhovskaya HPP by the Russians caused significant damage to the agriculture of Ukraine]. Міністерство аграрної політики та продовольства України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Khan, Yusuf; MacDonald, Alistair (6 June 2023). "Ukraine Dam Explosion Shakes Farmers, Pushes Grain Prices Higher". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- "Ukraine's grain, oilseeds harvest could fall 8% to 68 mln tonnes in 2023 – association". Interfax. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Cundy, Antonia (7 June 2022). "Dead dolphins: how nature became another casualty of the Ukraine war". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- Naddaf, Miryam (9 June 2023). "Ukraine dam collapse: what scientists are watching". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 618 (7965): 440–441. Bibcode:2023Natur.618..440N. doi:10.1038/d41586-023-01928-8. PMID 37296263. S2CID 259130340. Archived from the original on 9 June 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- "Aftermath of the Kakhovka Dam Collapse". Wilson Center. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- "3,318 UAH to USD - Ukrainian Hryvni to US Dollars Exchange Rate". Xe. 19 September 2023. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
- "Deadline extended for compensation of lost crops from the terrorist attack at Kakhovka HPP – Ministry of Reintegration of the Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine". Ministry of Reintegration of the Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine. 18 September 2023. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
- "Over 11,000 tonnes of fish worth US$270 million lost due to blowing up of Kakhovka HPP – Agricultural Policy Ministry". Ukrainska Pravda. 13 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "9,800,000,000 UAH to USD - Ukrainian Hryvni to US Dollars Exchange Rate". Xe. 19 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- Energy, Skystream (23 December 2022). "How many houses can 1 MW power?". Sky Stream Energy. Archived from the original on 30 December 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
- "Updated Ukraine Recovery and Reconstruction Needs Assessment". World Bank. 23 March 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- "U.K. Moves to Use Frozen Russian Assets to Help Ukraine Rebuild". The New York Times. 20 June 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- Masters, Jonathan (24 July 2023). "How Frozen Russian Assets Could Pay for Rebuilding in Ukraine". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
- Zehrung, Haley (20 June 2023). "Cost of damage in Kherson Oblast between $60-70 billion following dam explosion". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- Boyko, Olesya (22 June 2023). "Minister: Kakhovka disaster causes over $1.5 billion in damage so far". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
- Abnett, Kate (20 June 2023). "Ukraine says Kakhovka dam collapse caused 1.2 billion euros in damage". Reuters. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
- Kulish, Hnat. "Підрив Каховської ГЕС завдав Україні щонайменше $2 млрд прямих збитків - перші обрахунки KSE Institute". Kyiv School of Economics (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- "Economy Ministry: Direct losses from Kakhovka HPP blast estimated at $2B". Ukrinform. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
- Plowright, Adam (13 February 2023). "Seizing Russian assets is easier said than done". The Japan Times. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
- "Using frozen Russian money for Kyiv is barmy". Reuters. 25 May 2023. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
- Amran, Rachel (24 August 2023). "Government allocates $124 million towards reconstruction efforts on Kakhovka Hydroelectric Plant". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 24 August 2023.
- "Компенсація за зруйноване житло: хто може взяти участь у програмі та як вона працює". Економічна правда (in Ukrainian). 19 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "В Україні запрацювала програма "єВідновлення": як отримати компенсацію". Економічна правда (in Ukrainian). 19 May 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "200,000 UAH to USD - Ukrainian Hryvni to US Dollars Exchange Rate". Xe. 19 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "114,000,000 UAH to USD - Ukrainian Hryvni to US Dollars Exchange Rate". Xe. 19 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Про затвердження Порядку надання компенсації за знищені об'єкти нерухомого майна". Офіційний вебпортал парламенту України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Is blowing up of Kakhovka HPP basis for new warrant from International Criminal Court?". Ukrainska Pravda. 6 June 2023.
- Fornusek, Martin (13 June 2023). "Media: Greenpeace names conditions for Kakhovka disaster lawsuit against Russia". Yahoo News. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- Hunder, Max (1 June 2023). "Dutch war crimes investigators examine Ukraine's battered infrastructure". Reuters. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Russia withdraws from International Criminal Court treaty". BBC News. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "China, The International Criminal Court, And Global Governance". Australian Institute of International Affairs. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "Russia: International Criminal Court issues arrest warrant for Putin". UN News. 17 March 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- Armstrong, Kathryn; Gardner, Antoinette Radford & Frank (18 March 2023). "Putin arrest warrant: Biden welcomes ICC's war crimes charges". BBC News. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
- "The trial of Putin in The Hague: answers to the main questions". BBC News Україна (in Ukrainian). 18 March 2023. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- Telishevska, Sofiia (8 June 2023). "Russia submitted a statement against Ukraine to the International Criminal Court. Kyiv is accused of destroying the Kakhovka HPP". Бабель. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "BBC News - Русская служба". Telegram (in Russian). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "Ukraine's Filing Against Russia at the International Court of Justice". United States Department of State. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
- "Works and Installations Containing Dangerous Forces". ihl-databases.icrc.org. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
- Camut, Nicolas; Gabriel, Rinaldi; Bayer, Lili (6 June 2023). "Western leaders accuse Russia of war crime over dam destruction". POLITICO. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- Berg, Stephanie van den; Deutsch, Anthony (6 June 2023). "Explainer: Ukraine dam: When do attacks on civilian installations amount to war crimes?". Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "The invaders blew up the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant". Mil.in.ua. 6 June 2023.
- Sullivan, Helen (6 June 2023). "Russia-Ukraine war live: dam near Kherson destroyed by Russian forces, says Ukraine, sparking evacuations". the Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Ukraine calls for UN Security Council meeting and new sanctions against Russia after dam disaster". CNN. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Kate Tsurkan (6 June 2023). "Kuleba criticizes international media for entertaining Russian propaganda about Kakhovka dam explosion". The Kyiv Independent. Wikidata Q119140906. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023.
- Watts, Jonathan (7 June 2023). "Dam breach could be Ukraine's 'worst ecological disaster since Chornobyl'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Vladimir Putin calls Kakhovka dam attack 'barbaric act' in first reaction". WION. 7 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Ukraine blew up Kakhovka dam as revenge for failed offensive, says Russia". Firstpost. 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Эксперты — о возможных последствиях диверсии киевского режима на Каховской ГЭС" [Experts on possible consequences of Kyiv regime's sabotage of Kakhovska hydro-electric power plant]. RT in Russian. 6 June 2023.
- "Сальдо: в военном отношении ситуация после ЧС на Каховской ГЭС сложилась в пользу сил РФ". TACC. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "СМИ: разрушения на Каховской ГЭС сделали невозможным наступление ВСУ по воде". TACC. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Russian diplomat calls for international investigation into Kakhovka HPP's dam collapse". TASS. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
- "Путин заявил, что разрушение Каховской ГЭС Киевом сорвало наступление ВСУ". РБК (in Russian). 13 June 2023. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- "Dam break is "another devastating consequence" of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, UN secretary general says". CNN. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- Stoltenberg, Jens [@jensstoltenberg] (6 June 2023). "The destruction of the Kakhovka dam today puts thousands of civilians at risk and causes severe environmental damage" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Michel, Charles [@CharlesMichel] (6 June 2023). "Shocked by the unprecedented attack of the Nova Kakhovka dam" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Destruction of the Nova Kakhovka dam in the Kherson region of Ukraine: statement by Council of Europe leaders". coe.int.
- Ciobanu, Ramona (6 June 2023). "Klaus Iohannis, reacție după distrugerea barajului Nova Kahovka: Rusia trebuie trasă la răspundere". Libertatea (in Romanian).
- Dermenji, Denis (6 June 2023). "R. Moldova condamnă atacul asupra barajului din Nova Kahovka: "Rusia trebuie să răspundă"" (in Romanian). Radio Europa Liberă Moldova.
- Sabbagh, Dan (6 June 2023). "Thousands flee homes as collapse of dam is blamed on Russian forces". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Russia's attack on the Nova Kakhovka dam". mzv.cz. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- James, William (7 June 2023). "Britain cannot yet say Russia responsible for dam destruction – PM Sunak". Reuters. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Walker, Peter (6 June 2023). "Dam collapse would be new low if Moscow is to blame, says Rishi Sunak". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Bern, Stefaniia (6 June 2023). "Ukraine dam blast a result of Russian invasion -UK minister". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Zelenskyy visits area flooded by destroyed dam as five reported dead in Russian-occupied city". POLITICO. Associated Press. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
- Numbers, the (21 June 2023). "Russia Floods Twitter with Propaganda about the Kakhovka Dam's Collapse". Alliance For Securing Democracy. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
- "Kremlin launches 'aggressive' propaganda campaign to blame Ukraine for Kakhovka Dam collapse, researchers say". The Record from Recorded Future News. 21 June 2023. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
- "Chinese envoy voices concern over destruction of Ukrainian dam". China Daily. 7 July 2023.
- Burdeyna, Olena (6 June 2023). "На Запоріжчині армія рф підірвала низку ставків: боїться контнаступу ЗСУ – що відомо". StopCor (in Ukrainian).
- "На Запоріжжі російські нацисти підірвали греблі декількох ставків". Forpost (in Ukrainian). 6 June 2023.
- "Not Kakhovka Dam alone: Russia destroys dams in occupied Zaporizhzhia oblast". Human Rights in Ukraine. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
- Bivings, Lili (7 June 2023). "Official: It will take at least 5 years, $1 billion to build new power station after destruction of Kakhovka dam". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "На демонтаж Каховської ГЕС і побудову нової піде 6 років, – гендиректор "Укргідроенерго" Сирота". ukranews_com (in Ukrainian). 15 June 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- Court, Elsa (18 July 2023). "Shmyhal: Ukraine to reconstruct Kakhovka dam and power plant". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "The Cabinet of Ministers approved the Kakhovka HPP reconstruction project on an experimental basis". Ukrainska Pravda. 18 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "The occupiers plan to solve the water shortage in Crimea in 10 years". Суспільне Крим. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
- "78,000,000,000 RUB to USD - Russian Rubles to US Dollars Exchange Rate". Xe. 20 September 2023. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
- "Zelenskiy Visits Areas Hit By Flooding As Rescue Efforts Under Way In Southern Ukraine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 June 2023.
- Peleschuk, Dan (8 June 2023). "Kherson governor says Russian forces shelling city". Zawya.
- "Occupiers blow up dam in Donetsk Oblast, causing flooding". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- Маркіян Климковецький (11 June 2023). "Окупанти підірвали греблю на Донеччині, щоб завадити українському контрнаступу – Сили оборониМаркіян Климковецький" [The occupiers destroyed a dam in Donetsk to obstruct the Ukrainian counter-offensive – Defence Forces]. Hromadske (in Ukrainian). Wikidata Q119400109. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023.
- Brennan, David (12 June 2023). "Russia blows dam in Donetsk to "slow" Ukraine advance: Kyiv". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
- "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, JUNE 13, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. 13 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- "Russians blow up hydraulic structures on areas of Ukraine's counterattack". Ukrainska Pravda. 13 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
- "Russians planting mines at Crimean Titan factory - intelligence". Ukrinform. 12 June 2023.
- "Could Russians blow up dams on Dnipro River, at Zaporizhzhya NPP and Crimean Titan plant?". The New Voice of Ukraine. 11 June 2023.
- Smart, Jason Jay; Korshak, Stefan; Popovych, Nataliya (7 June 2023). "Erdogan Floats Dam Probe in Zelensky, Putin Calls". Get the Latest Ukraine News Today - KyivPost. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Kuleba On Creation Of Kakhovka HEPP Destruction Commission: This Is A Giveaway Game With Russians". ukranews_com. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Ukraine rejects Türkiye's Kakhovka dam proposal". AZƏRBAYCAN24. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Red Cross denied access to prisoners at Russian-held Olenivka despite 'intense' talks -ICRC chief". Reuters. 1 September 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "STATEMENT BY THE HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR FOR UKRAINE DENISE BROWN ON HUMANITARIAN ACCESS TO AREAS UNDER RUSSIAN CONTROL". Ukraine. 18 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
- "Ukraine News: Why Russia may be 'preventing access' to the Kakhovka dam". YouTube. Retrieved 19 June 2023.