List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust

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This is a list of major perpetrators of the Holocaust.

Name Photograph Date of birth Date of death Age at death Role Fate
Adolf Hitler Hitler portrait crop.jpg April 20, 1889 April 30, 1945 56 years, 10 days Leader of the Nazi Party during the Third Reich

Chancellor of Germany
Führer

Committed suicide by gunshot[1][2]
Heinrich Himmler Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S72707, Heinrich Himmler.jpg October 7, 1900 May 23, 1945 44 years, 228 days Reichsführer-SS

Chief of German Police
Reich Minister of the Interior

Arrested; committed suicide by biting down on a cyanide capsule
Reinhard Heydrich Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-054-16, Reinhard Heydrich.jpg March 7, 1904 June 4, 1942 38 years, 89 days Chief of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)

Deputy Reich-Protector of Bohemia and Moravia (acting Protector)

Died of sepsis caused by injuries sustained in an assassination attempt (Operation Anthropoid)
Adolf Eichmann Adolf Eichmann, 1942.jpg March 19, 1906 June 1, 1962 56 years, 74 days Head of the Gestapo Office of Jewish Affairs (RSHA Sub-Department IV-B4). Charged by Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the mass deportations of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Eastern Europe. Evaded arrest and escaped to Argentina in 1950. Discovered and kidnapped by Israeli agents in May 1960; subsequently brought to Israel, tried and executed by hanging in 1962.
Hermann Göring Hermann Göring - Röhr.jpg January 12, 1893 October 15, 1946 53 years, 276 days Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe
President of the Reichstag
Reichsminister of Aviation
Sentenced to death by hanging; committed suicide by cyanide poisoning hours before his execution
Heinrich Müller Heinrich Müller.jpg April 28, 1900 Unknown Unknown SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Polizei, Chief of the Gestapo 1939–45 Disappeared; possibly killed in Berlin in May 1945 (unconfirmed)
Odilo Globocnik Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2007-0188, Odilo Globocnik.jpg April 21, 1904 May 31, 1945 41 years, 40 days SS and Police Leader in the General Government

Head of Operation Reinhard

Committed suicide by cyanide poisoning
Theodor Eicke Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1974-160-13A, Theodor Eicke.jpg October 17, 1892 February 26, 1943 50 years, 132 days A major figure in the creation of the Nazi concentration camps

First commander of SS Division Totenkopf, which became notorious for its war crimes.

Killed in action
Richard Glücks Richard Glücks.jpg April 22, 1889 May 10, 1945 56 years, 18 days Head of Concentration Camp Operations (Amt D: Konzentrationslagerwesen) in the SS Main Economic and Administrative Department (SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt) Committed suicide by cyanide poisoning
Ernst Kaltenbrunner Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1943).jpg October 4, 1903 October 16, 1946 43 years, 12 days Chief of the Reich Security Main Office after Heydrich was assassinated Executed by hanging
Hans Frank Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-011-13, Hans Frank.jpg May 23, 1900 October 16, 1946 46 years, 146 days Governor-General of the General Government Executed by hanging
Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart.jpg July 22, 1892 October 16, 1946 54 years, 86 days Ruler of the Netherlands after its conquest

Deputy Governor-General for Hans Frank, October 12, 1939 – May 18, 1940

Executed by hanging
Josef Bühler Bühler Josef.jpg February 16, 1904 August 22, 1948 44 years, 188 days Deputy Governor-General for Hans Frank, May 18, 1940 – January 19, 1945 Executed by hanging
Kurt Daluege Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-054-07, Kurt Daluege.jpg September 15, 1897 October 24, 1946 49 years, 39 days Chief of the Ordnungspolizei

Deputy Reich-Protector of Bohemia and Moravia (acting Protector)

Executed by hanging
Oswald Pohl Pohl front.jpg June 30, 1892 June 7, 1951 58 years, 343 days Chief of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt (SS Main Economic and Administrative Department), the central SS financial office responsible for overall administration of the concentration camps. Executed by hanging
Alois Brunner Alois Brunner.JPG April 8, 1912 December 2001[3] or December 2010[4] 89 or 98 Deputy to Adolf Eichmann; organised the deportations of at least 140,000 Jews from France, Greece, Slovakia and Austria. Commandant of the Drancy internment camp. Escaped to Egypt around 1954, then fled to Syria. Served as a consultant to the al-Assad regime on torture techniques; died in Syria of natural causes in December 2001.
Theodor Dannecker SS war criminal Theodor Dannecker.jpg March 27, 1913 December 10, 1945 32 years, 258 days Deputy to Adolf Eichmann; Head of the SD Hauptamt – Judenreferat (SD Head Office – Jewish Affairs Department) for Paris: September 1940 – July 1942

In charge of the Final Solution in Bulgaria, the Balkans and Hungary (from 1943)

Arrested by the U.S. military; committed suicide
Martin Bormann Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R14128A, Martin Bormann.jpg June 17, 1900 May 2, 1945 44 years, 319 days Head of the Nazi Party Chancellery

Private Secretary to Adolf Hitler

Sentenced to death by hanging in absentia; believed to have committed suicide to avoid capture in Berlin; the buried body was not found until 1972; the remains were conclusively identified in 1998.[5][6]
Wilhelm Keitel Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H30220, Wilhelm Keitel.jpg September 22, 1882 October 16, 1946 64 years, 24 days Minister of War and chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces Executed by hanging. See War crimes of the Wehrmacht.
Georg Michalsen September 13, 1906 May 21, 1993 86 years, 250 days Active in Operation Reinhard; helped oversee Grossaktion Warsaw and the liquidation of several ghettos, including the Białystok Ghetto Sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1974 but released in 1979
Hermann Höfle June 19, 1911 August 20, 1962 51 years, 62 days Coordinator of Operation Reinhard Arrested; committed suicide by hanging
Ante Pavelić Ante Pavelić StAF W 134 Nr. 026020 Bild 1 (5-92156-1).jpg July 14, 1889 December 28, 1959 70 years, 167 days Leader of the Independent State of Croatia Escaped to Argentina in 1948 via the ratlines. Died from wounds sustained from an assassination attempt in 1957.
Bruno Tesch Tesch Bruno.jpg August 14, 1890 May 16, 1946 55 years, 275 days Sold Zyklon B to the SS, knowing that it would be used to exterminate concentration camp prisoners Executed by hanging
Karl Weinbacher Karl Weinbacher.jpg June 23, 1898 May 16, 1946 47 years, 327 days Sold Zyklon B to the SS, knowing that it would be used to exterminate concentration camp prisoners Executed by hanging
Erwin Lambert Lambert, Erwin.jpg December 7, 1909 October 15, 1976 66 years, 313 days Head of gas chamber construction during Operation Reinhard Served four years in prison after on trial, acquitted after a second trial on separate charges
Christian Wirth Wirth, Christian.jpg November 24, 1885 May 26, 1944 58 years, 184 days Inspector of Aktion T4 and Operation Reinhard;

Commandant of Bełżec, March 17, 1942 – end of August 1942

Assassinated
Rudolf Höss Rudolf Höß.jpg November 25, 1900 April 16, 1947 46 years, 142 days Commandant of Auschwitz, May 4, 1940 – December 1, 1943, May 8, 1944 – January 18, 1945 Executed by hanging
Arthur Liebehenschel Liebehenschel, Arthur.jpg November 25, 1901 January 24, 1948 46 years, 60 days Commandant of Auschwitz, December 1, 1943 – May 8, 1944

Commandant of Majdanek, May 19, 1944 – July 22, 1944

Executed by hanging
Martin Weiss Martin Gottfried Weiss.jpg June 3, 1905 May 29, 1946 40 years, 360 days Commandant of Dachau, January 3, 1942 – September 30, 1943

Commandant of Dachau, April 26, 1945 – April 28, 1945
Commandant of Neuengamme, April 1940 – August 1942
Commandant of Majdanek, November 1943 – May 1944

Executed by hanging
Alexander Piorkowski Alexander Piorkowski.jpg October 11, 1904 October 22, 1948 44 years, 11 days Commandant of Dachau, February 1940 – September 1942 Executed by hanging
Otto Förschner Otto Förschner.jpg November 4, 1902 May 28, 1946 43 years, 205 days Commandant of Mittelbau-Dora, October 1944 – January 1945 Executed by hanging
Max Pauly Max Pauly (cropped).png June 1, 1907 October 8, 1946 39 years, 129 days Commandant of Stutthof, September 1939 – August 1942

Commandant of Neuengamme, September 1942 – May 1945

Executed by hanging
Heinrich Schwarz June 14, 1906 March 20, 1947 40 years, 279 days Commandant of Monowitz,

Commandant of Natzweiler-Struthof, February 1945 – April 1945

Executed by firing squad
Karl-Otto Koch August 2, 1897 April 5, 1945 47 years, 246 days Commandant of Buchenwald, August 1, 1937 – September 1941

Commandant of Majdanek, September 1941 – August 24, 1942

Executed by Nazi Germany for multiple "unauthorized murders" and embezzlement
Hermann Pister Hermann Pister.jpg February 21, 1885 September 28, 1948 63 years, 250 days Commandant of Buchenwald, August 1, 1937 – September 1941 Died awaiting execution
Irmfried Eberl Irmfried Eberl.jpg September 8, 1910 February 16, 1948 37 years, 161 days Commandant of Treblinka, July 11, 1942 – August 26, 1942 Arrested; committed suicide by hanging
Hans Bothmann Hans Bothmann (1911 - 1946).jpg November 11, 1911 April 4, 1946 34 years, 144 days Commandant of Chelmno, April 1942 – July 1944 Arrested by the British Army; committed suicide by hanging
Herbert Lange Herbert Lange - SS kommando Kulmhof (cropped).jpg September 29, 1909 April 20, 1945 35 years, 203 days Commandant of Chelmno, December 1941 – March 1942 Killed in action during the Battle of Berlin
Franz Stangl Franz Stangl Treblinka.jpg March 26, 1908 June 28, 1971 63 years, 94 days Commandant of Sobibor, April 28, 1942 – August 30, 1942 ;

Commandant of Treblinka, September 1, 1942 – August 1943

Arrested on February 28, 1967; sentenced to life imprisonment on October 22, 1970; died in prison
Kurt Franz Kurt Franz Treblinka.jpg January 17, 1914 July 4, 1998 84 years, 168 days Commandant of Treblinka, August 1943 – October 19, 1943 Arrested on December 2, 1959; sentenced to life imprisonment in 1965; released on health grounds in 1993
Richard Thomalla Richard Thomalla.jpg October 23, 1903 May 12, 1945 41 years, 201 days In charge of construction for the Operation Reinhard death camps: Bełżec, Sobibor and Treblinka Extrajudicially executed by the NKVD
Franz Reichleitner Franz Reichleitner.jpg December 2, 1906 January 3, 1944 37 years, 32 days Commandant of Sobibor, September 1, 1942 – October 17, 1943 Assassinated
Gottlieb Hering Gottlieb Hering.jpg June 2, 1887 October 9, 1945 58 years, 129 days Commandant of Bełżec, end of August 1942 – June 1943 Died of mysterious health complications
Amon Goeth Amon goeth 1946.jpg December 11, 1908 September 13, 1946 37 years, 276 days Commandant of Kraków-Płaszów Executed by hanging
Siegfried Seidl Siegfried Seidl.jpg August 24, 1911 February 4, 1947 35 years, 164 days Commandant of Theresienstadt, November 1941 – July 1943

Leading member of the Sondereinsatzkommando Eichmann, which organized the mass deportations of approximately 437,000 Hungarian Jews, hundreds of thousands of whom were sent to Auschwitz and gassed

Executed by hanging
Karl Rahm April 2, 1907 April 30, 1947 40 years, 28 days Commandant of Theresienstadt, January 1944  – May 1945 Executed by hanging
Max Koegel 2015 09 15 KZ Ravensbrück Max Koegel 1 IMG 2353 S.JPG October 16, 1895 June 27, 1946 50 years, 254 days Commandant of Ravensbrück, January 1940 – August 1942

Commandant of Majdanek, August 1942 – November 1942
Commandant of Flossenbürg, April 1943 – April 1945

Committed suicide by hanging
Fritz Suhren June 10, 1908 June 12, 1950 42 years, 2 days Commandant of Ravensbrück, August 1942 – April 1945 Executed by firing squad
Franz Ziereis Ziereis cropped.JPG August 13, 1905 May 25, 1945 39 years, 285 days Commandant of Mauthausen, February 1939-May 1945 Shot by American soldiers while trying to escape, died of his injuries the next day
Aleksander Laak August 24, 1907 September 6, 1960 53 years, 13 days Commandant of Jägala Committed suicide by hanging in Canada, allegedly to protect his relatives from potential reprisals
Hans Aumeier Aumeier, Hans.jpg August 20, 1906 January 24, 1948 41 years, 157 days Commandant of Vaivara, August 1943 – November 1943

Deputy commandant at Auschwitz

Executed by hanging
Hanns Rauter Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1982-1021-509, Hanns Rauter-edit.jpg February 4, 1895 March 24, 1949 54 years, 48 days Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) for the Netherlands Executed by firing squad
Walter Rauff Walter Rauff (Walther Rauff, 1945) (cropped).jpg June 19, 1906 May 14, 1984 77 years, 330 days Close aide of Reinhard Heydrich. Group Leader II D of the RSHA (technical matters). Designed gas vans to poison Jews, and persons with disabilities. Einsatzkommando leader in North Africa (1942–43), SS and Gestapo commander in northwest Italy (1943–45). Arrested in Italy in 1945; escaped in 1946, fled to Syria in 1948, to Ecuador in 1949, to Chile in 1958. Extradition request by Germany thrown out by Chile in 1963 on the grounds of expired statute of limitations. Most wanted Nazi fugitive in the 1970s and 1980s. Died of natural causes in Chile in 1984.
Eduard Wirths Eduard Wirths.jpg September 4, 1909 September 20, 1945 36 years, 16 days Human medical experimentation, and formal responsibility of medical staff at Auschwitz Arrested; committed suicide by hanging
Josef Mengele WP Josef Mengele 1956.jpg March 16, 1911 February 7, 1979 67 years, 328 days Human medical experimentation, particularly children, and selection of prisoners to be gassed at Auschwitz Escaped to Brazil; evaded arrest and drowned while swimming in 1979
Fritz Katzmann Fritz Katzmann, occupied Poland (cropped).jpg May 6, 1906 September 19, 1957 51 years, 136 days SS and Police Leader of the District of Galicia
Responsible for the establishment of the Lwów Ghetto, which had a population of 120,000 Polish Jews, only 823 surviving after the war.
SS and Police Leader of Radom District
In charge of the establishment of the Radom Ghetto, which enclosed about 33,000 Polish Jews, the majority of whom died.
Evaded arrest after the war and died in 1957
Philipp Bouhler Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1983-094-01, Phillip Bouhler.jpg September 11, 1899 May 19, 1945 45 years, 250 days Director of Aktion T4 Arrested; committed suicide by cyanide poisoning
Karl Brandt Karl Brandt SS-Arzt.jpg January 8, 1904 June 2, 1948 44 years, 146 days Co-director of Aktion T4

Conducted human medical experimentation

Executed by hanging
Viktor Brack Viktor Brack Nürnberg 2.jpg November 9, 1904 June 2, 1948 43 years, 206 days Administrator of Aktion T4

Conducted human medical experimentation

Executed by hanging
Werner Heyde April 25, 1902 February 13, 1964 61 years, 294 days Director for Aktion T4 Arrested in 1945; escaped custody in 1947; turned himself in 1959; committed suicide while awaiting trial in 1964.
Paul Nitsche Hermann Paul Nitsche.jpg November 25, 1876 March 25, 1948 71 years, 121 days Director for Aktion T4 Executed by guillotine
Karl Gebhardt Karl Gebhardt, SS-Arzt.jpg November 23, 1897 June 2, 1948 50 years, 192 days Oversaw human medical experimentation of concentration camp inmates Executed by hanging
Josef Kramer Kramer Josef.jpeg November 10, 1906 December 13, 1945 39 years, 33 days Commandant of Auschwitz (1944)

Commandant of Bergen-Belsen (1944–1945)

Executed by hanging
Wilhelm Harster Wilhelm Harster (cropped).jpg July 21, 1904 December 25, 1991 87 years, 157 days Commander of the Security Police (SiPo) and SD (Kraków, 1939–40; Netherlands, 1940–43; Italy, 1943–45). Responsible for the deaths of at least 104,000 Jews. Arrested in 1945 and transferred to Dutch custody. Tried and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment in 1949; served six years; deported to West Germany in 1955. Arrested and tried in 1967. Sentenced to 15 years imprisonment, but sentence commuted and released in 1969.
Karl Frenzel August 28, 1911 September 2, 1996 85 years, 5 days Commandant of Camp I (forced labor camp) at Sobibor Arrested on March 22, 1962; sentenced to life imprisonment on December 20, 1966; released on health grounds in 1982
Hermann Fegelein Hermann Fegelein.jpg October 30, 1906 April 28, 1945 38 years, 180 days Responsible for the Pripyat Marshes massacres Executed by Nazi Germany for desertion after trying to flee from Berlin
Oskar Dirlewanger Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S73495, Oskar Dirlewanger.jpg September 26, 1895 June 7, 1945 49 years, 254 days Commander of the Dirlewanger Brigade Arrested, then beaten to death by Polish guards while in custody
Bronislav Kaminski Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-280-1075-11A, Russland, Brigadekommandeur Borislaw Kaminski.jpg June 16, 1899 August 28, 1944 45 years, 73 days Commander of the Kaminski Brigade Executed by Nazi Germany after being court-martialed for war crimes
Jürgen Stroop Jürgen Stroop.jpg September 26, 1895 March 6, 1952 56 years, 162 days Suppression and destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Executed by hanging
Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg.jpg March 17, 1897 September 20, 1944 47 years, 187 days SS and Police Leader of the Warsaw area from 1941–43

Responsible for the Grossaktion Warsaw, the single most deadly operation against the Jews in the course of the Holocaust in occupied Poland, which entailed sending between 254,000 and 265,000 men, women and children aboard overcrowded Holocaust trains to Treblinka

Leading figure in the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Assassinated
Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger.jpg February 27, 1894 May 9, 1945 51 years, 71 days Higher SS and Police Leader (HSPPF) in occupied Poland Committed suicide
Friedrich Jeckeln FriedrichJeckeln.jpg February 2, 1895 February 3, 1946 51 years, 1 day Higher SS and Police Leader in Russia-South; Russia-North

Responsible for Rumbula, Babi Yar, and Kamianets-Podilskyi massacres

Executed by hanging
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth KarlEberhardSchongarth.jpg April 22, 1903 May 16, 1946 43 years, 24 days Commanded multiple Einsatzgruppen units in Poland

Commander of the BdS in the Netherlands (September 1944– May 1945)

Executed by hanging
Kurt Eberhard Eberhard Kurt (Generalmajor).jpg September 12, 1874 September 8, 1947 72 years, 361 days Military governor of German-occupied Kiev

Responsible for the Babi Yar massacre

Arrested; committed suicide
Walter von Reichenau Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B05284, Walter v. Reichenau.jpg October 8, 1884 January 17, 1942 57 years, 101 days Issued the Severity Order

Responsible for the Babi Yar and Bila Tserkva massacres

Died after having a stroke, then suffering injuries in a plane crash
Hans-Adolf Prützmann Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R53525, Hans Prützmann.jpg August 31, 1901 May 16, 1945 43 years, 258 days Supreme SS and Police Leader of Ukraine

Higher SS and Police Leader of Russia-North; Russia-South

Oversaw the activities of the Einsatzgruppen detachments that perpetrated the Holocaust in the Baltic States and Ukraine

Committed suicide by cyanide poisoning while in Allied custody
Bruno Streckenbach February 7, 1902 October 28, 1977 75 years, 263 days Trained the Einsatzgruppen

Commander of Einsatzgruppe I in Poland Supp

Served 10 years in Soviet custody, but never tried; released on October 10, 1955
Ludwig Hahn Ludwig Hahn personal SS files.jpg January 23, 1908 November 10, 1986 78 years, 291 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 1/I, Poland

Suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Suppression of the Warsaw Uprising

Arrested in 1960; released in 1961; briefly re-arrested in 1965 and 1966; arrested for the last time in 1972; sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1973; sentenced to life in prison in 1975; released on health grounds in 1983; died in 1986
Karl Brunner July 26, 1900 December 7, 1980 80 years, 134 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 4/I, Poland Never prosecuted
Emanuel Schäfer EmanuelSchäfer.jpg April 20, 1900 December 4, 1974 74 years, 228 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe II, Poland

Commander of the BdS in Serbia, (January 6, 1942 – December 1944)

Sentenced to 21 months in prison by a denazification court in 1951; released in 1953. Sentenced to a further 6.5 years in prison in June 1953; released in 1956.
Lothar Beutel May 6, 1902 May 16, 1986 84 years, 10 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe IV, Poland (1/2) Served 10 years in Soviet custody, but never tried; released in October 1955. Arrested and charged in West Germany in 1965; released on bail in 1967; charges dropped in 1971; died in 1986.
Josef Albert Meisinger Josef Meisinger (1899-1947).jpg September 14, 1899 March 7, 1947 47 years, 174 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe IV, Poland (2/2)
Commander of the state police in Warsaw
Executed by hanging
Ernst Damzog Damzog.jpg October 30, 1882 July 24, 1945 62 years, 267 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe V, Poland Killed in action
Gerhard Flesch Gerhard Flesch (6983604862).jpg October 18, 1909 February 28, 1948 38 years, 133 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 2/VI, Poland Executed by firing squad
Franz Walther Stahlecker Franz Walter Stahlecker01.jpg October 10, 1900 March 23, 1942 41 years, 164 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Baltic states, June 22, 1941March 23, 1942 (1/5) Killed in action
Heinz Jost Heinz Jost 09936.jpg July 9, 1904 November 12, 1964 60 years, 126 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Baltic states, March 29, 1942September 2, 1942 (2/5) Sentenced to life imprisonment in 1948; commuted to 10 years; released in December 1951; died in 1964
Humbert Achamer-Pifrader November 21, 1900 April 25, 1945 44 years, 155 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Baltic states, September 10, 1942September 4, 1943 (3/5) Killed in air raid
Friedrich Panzinger February 1, 1903 August 8, 1959 56 years, 188 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Baltic states, September 5, 1943May 6, 1944 (4/5)
Last chief of the Kripo (2/2)
Arrested; committed suicide
Wilhelm Fuchs September 1, 1898 January 24, 1947 48 years, 145 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Baltic states, May 6, 1944October 10, 1944 (5/5)
Commander of Einsatzkommando 3, September 15, 1943May 27, 1944
Commander of Einsatzgruppe E, Croatia, October 1944–November 1944 (3/3)
Commander of the BdS in Serbia, (1941 – January 1942)
Executed by hanging
Eduard Strauch Eduard Strauch.jpg August 17, 1906 September 15, 1955 49 years, 29 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 2, Latvia, November 4, 1941December 2, 1941 (2/6)

Commander of Sonderkommando 1b, March 1942August 1942 (3/4)

Responsible for Rumbula massacre

Sentenced to death by hanging by an American military court in 1948, then transferred to Belgium, where he received another death sentence. Strauch was never executed and died in custody.
Rudolf Lange April 18, 1910 February 23, 1945 34 years, 311 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 2, Latvia, December 3, 19411944 Believed to have been killed in action
Karl Jäger KarlJaeger1.jpg September 20, 1888 June 22, 1959 70 years, 275 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 3, Lithuania, June 1941August 1, 1943 Discovered and arrested in 1959; committed suicide while awaiting trial
Hermann Schaper August 12, 1911 deceased after 2002 over 90 years Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Poland Arrested in 1964; released due to insufficient evidence
Arthur Nebe Bundesarchiv Bild 101III-Alber-096-34, Arthur Nebe.jpg November 13, 1894 March 21, 1945 50 years, 128 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Belarus, June 1941November 1941 (1/5)
Chief of the Kripo (1/2)
President of Interpol
Executed by Nazi Germany for involvement in the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler
Erich Naumann Erich Naumann at the Nuremberg Trials.PNG April 29, 1905 June 7, 1951 46 years, 40 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe VI, Poland

Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Belarus, November 1941March 1943 (2/5)

Commander of the BdS in the Netherlands, September 1943–July 1944

Executed by hanging
Horst Böhme Horst.Bohme(1909-1945).gif August 24, 1909 April 10, 1945 35 years, 229 days Lidice
Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Belarus, March 12, 1943August 28, 1943, August 12, 1944 (3/5) and (4/5)

Commander of Einsatzgruppe C, north and central Ukraine, September 6, 1943March 1944 (3/3)

Presumed killed in action in Königsberg, East Prussia; officially declared dead in 1954
Erich Ehrlinger October 14, 1910 July 31, 2004 93 years, 291 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Belarus, August 28, 1943April 1944 (4/5);

Commander of Sonderkommando 1b, June 1941November 1941

Arrested in December 1958; sentenced to 12 years imprisonment
Heinrich Seetzen June 22, 1906 September 28, 1945 39 years, 98 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Belarus, April 28, 1944August 1944 (5/5);

Commander of Einsatzkommando 10a, Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and north Caucasus, June 1941July 1942

Arrested in September 1945; committed suicide by cyanide poisoning
Otto Bradfisch Prozess gegen SS-Obersturmführer Hans Graalfs wegen Beihilfe zum Massenmord an Juden in Weißrussland (Kiel 32.371).jpg May 10, 1903 June 22, 1994 91 years, 43 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 8, Belarus, June 1941April 1, 1942 Arrested on April 21, 1958; sentenced to 13 years imprisonment in 1963; released in 1965; died in 1994
Otto Rasch Otto Rasch at the Nuremberg Trials.jpg December 7, 1891 November 1, 1948 56 years, 330 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe C, north and central Ukraine, June 1941October 1941 (1/3)

Responsible for the Babi Yar massacre

Arrested; removed from trial on health grounds; died in prison
Paul Blobel Paul-Blobel.jpg August 13, 1894 June 7, 1951 56 years, 298 days Commander of Sonderkommando 4a, north and central Ukraine, June 1941–13 January 1942 (1/5), commander of the Sonderaktion 1005 project

Responsible for the Babi Yar and Bila Tserkva massacres

Executed by hanging
Otto Ohlendorf Otto Ohlendorf at the Nuremberg Trials.PNG February 4, 1907 June 7, 1951 44 years, 124 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe D, Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and north Caucasus, June 1941July 1942 (1/2) Executed by hanging
Walther Bierkamp December 17, 1901 May 15, 1945 43 years, 149 days Commander of Einsatzgruppe D, Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and north Caucasus, July 1942March 1943 (2/2) Committed suicide
Bruno Müller Bruno Muller (SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer).jpg September 13, 1905 March 1, 1960 54 years, 170 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 2/I, Poland

Commander of Einsatzkommando 11b, south Ukraine and the Crimea, October 1941September 1942

Sentenced to 20 years in prison for unrelated crimes in 1948; released in 1953; died in 1960
Werner Braune Braune Werner.jpg April 11, 1909 June 7, 1951 42 years, 58 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 11b, south Ukraine and the Crimea, October 1941September 1942 Executed by hanging
Rudolf Batz November 10, 1903 February 8, 1961 57 years, 90 days Commander of Einsatzkommando 2

Oversaw Einsatzgruppen killings in the Baltic States

Arrested in 1961; committed suicide while awaiting trial
Joachim Hamann[7] May 18, 1913 July 13, 1945 32 years, 56 days Commander of Rollkommando Hamann, a small mobile unit established by him that murdered an estimated 60,000 Latvian Jews in massacres across occupied territory Committed suicide
Wolfgang Birkner October 27, 1913 March 24, 1945 31 years, 148 days Commander of Kommando Bialystok, a small mobile unit which murdered at least 1,800 Polish Jews Killed in action
Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R63893, Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel.jpg January 2, 1886 August 30, 1944 58 years, 241 days Ordered the mass deportations of Jews in France and collaborated with Einsatzgruppen in multiple reprisals attacks in Ukraine Executed by Nazi Germany for involvement in the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler
Erich Hoepner Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1971-068-10, Erich Hoepner.jpg September 14, 1886 August 8, 1944 57 years, 329 days Collaborated with Einsatzgruppe A

Carried out orders to summarily execute Communist officials under the Commissar Order

Executed by Nazi Germany for involvement in the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler
Eduard Wagner Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1981-041-16A, Eduard Wagner.jpg April 1, 1894 July 23, 1944 50 years, 113 days Drew up regulations that allowed German soldiers to take hostages from civilian population and execute them as response to resistance

Drew up the regulations with Reinhard Heydrich to ensure the Wehrmacht's cooperation with the Einsatzgruppen in the murders of Soviet Jews

Committed suicide in the aftermath of the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler
Henning von Tresckow Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1976-130-53, Henning v. Tresckow.jpg January 10, 1901 July 21, 1944 43 years, 193 days Signed the Heuaktion order, in which 40,000 and 50,000 Polish and Ukrainian children aged 10 to 14 were kidnapped for Nazi Germany's slave labour program Committed suicide in the aftermath of the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to kill Adolf Hitler
Ulrich Greifelt Ulrich Greifelt.jpg December 8, 1896 February 6, 1949 52 years, 60 days Responsible for the mass expulsions of non-Germans, as well as a directive ordering the mass abductions of children suspecting of being ethnic Germans Died in prison
Maria Mandel Maria Mandel.jpg January 10, 1912 January 24, 1948 36 years, 14 days Commandant of female camp at Auschwitz Executed by hanging
Fritz Hartjenstein July 3, 1905 October 20, 1954 49 years, 109 days Commandant of Birkenau

Commandant of Natzweiler-Struthof, May 9, 1944 – January 1945

Died awaiting execution
Johann Schwarzhuber Johann Schwarzhuber crop.png August 29, 1904 May 3, 1947 42 years, 247 days Commandant of men's camp at Auschwitz, and selection of prisoners to be gassed at Auschwitz

Commandant of Birkenau

Executed by hanging
Martin Weiss February 21, 1903 September 30, 1984 81 years, 222 days Commander of the Vilna Ghetto

Commander of the Ypatingasis būrys killing squad, which was largely responsible for the Ponary massacre where approximately 100,000 people were shot, including 70,000 Jews.

Arrested in 1949; sentenced to life imprisonment in 1950; sentence suspended in 1971 and revoked in 1977; died in 1984
Eduard Roschmann Edward Roschmann.jpg November 25, 1908 August 8, 1977 68 years, 256 days Commandant of the Riga Ghetto Arrested in 1945 but released early; fled to Argentina and subsequently escaped prosecution; died in 1977
Otto-Heinrich Drechsler HL Damals – Drechsler.jpg April 1, 1895 May 5, 1945 50 years, 34 days General Commissioner for Latvia for Nazi Germany's occupation regime (Reichskommissariat Ostland)
Major figure in the establishment of the Riga Ghetto
Taken into British custody; committed suicide
Franz Murer January 24, 1912 January 5, 1994 81 years, 346 days Responsible for the establishment of the Vilna Ghetto, which hosted a population of about 55,000 Jews, none of whom survived after the war
Effectively ruled the ghetto until July 23, shortly before its liquidation
Arrested in 1947 and deported to the Soviet Union in January 1948; sentenced to 25 years in hard labor; released in 1955 due to the Austrian State Treaty. Arrested and prosecuted again in 1963 due to the intervention of the famous Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal; acquitted on all charges and died in 1994.
Franz Josef Huber January 22, 1902 January 30, 1975 73 years, 8 days Chief of the SiPo (Security Police) and the Gestapo for Vienna, the "Upper" and "Lower Danube" regions and formal chief of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna
Responsible for the mass deportations of Austrian Jews from these regions
Died in 1975 without being suspected of any crimes
Edmund Veesenmayer Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1993-021-20, Edmund Veesenmayer.jpg November 12, 1904 December 23, 1977 73 years, 42 days Reich plenipotentiary to Hungary after the occupation of the country

Helped establish the Ustaše-led Independent State of Croatia

Assisted in the deportations of 300,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz

Arrested in 1945; sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in 1949; sentence commuted to 10 years imprisonment in 1951; released December, 1951; died in 1977
Jozef Tiso Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2010-0049, Josef Tiso.jpg October 13, 1887 April 18, 1947 59 years, 187 days Leader of the State of Slovakia Executed by hanging
Alexander Mach Alexander Mach Slovakia11.jpg October 11, 1902 October 15, 1980 78 years, 4 days Head of the Hlinka Guard, one of the leading forces in the extermination of 68,000–71,000 Slovak Jews during the Holocaust in Slovakia Sentenced to 30 years imprisonment; released in 1968; died in 1980
Vojtech Tuka Vojtech Tuka 1941 crop.png July 4, 1880 August 20, 1946 66 years, 47 days Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak State

Leading figure in the mass deportations of Slovak Jews to Nazi concentration camps

Executed by hanging
Ludwig Fischer Ludwig Fischer.jpg April 6, 1905 March 8, 1947 41 years, 336 days Governor of the Warsaw District

Responsible for the establishment of the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest ghetto ever built by the Nazis

Executed by hanging
Jakob Sporrenberg SporrenbergJakob.jpg September 16, 1902 December 6, 1952 50 years, 91 days Oversaw and implemented Operation Harvest Festival Executed by hanging
Albert Forster Albert Forster.jpg July 26, 1902 February 28, 1952 49 years, 217 days Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia

Incited the massacres in Piaśnica

Executed by hanging
Arthur Greiser Arthur Greiser 1934.jpg January 22, 1897 July 21, 1946 49 years, 180 days Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter of Reichsgau Wartheland Executed by hanging
Josef Bürckel Josef Bürckel.jpg March 30, 1895 September 28, 1944 49 years, 182 days Influential in the rise of the Nazi movement

Responsible for the establishment of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna
Gauleiter of Vienna
Governor of the Vienna region
Gauleiter of Gau Westmark

Died because of ill health
Ferdinand aus der Fünten December 17, 1909 April 19, 1989 79 years, 123 days Head of the Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Amsterdam Sentenced to death in 1950, which was commuted to life in imprisonment in 1951; released on health grounds in 1989; died later that year
Erich Koch Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H13717, Erich Koch.jpg June 19, 1896 November 12, 1986 90 years, 146 days Gauleiter of East Prussia

Chief of Civil Administration (Chef der Zivilverwaltung) of Bezirk Bialystok
Reich Commissioner for Ukraine (Reichskommissariat Ukraine)

Arrested by the British in 1949, and extradited to Poland in 1950. Sentenced to death in 1959, which was commuted to life imprisonment in 1960; died in prison in 1986.
Viktors Arājs January 13, 1910 January 13, 1988 78 years Leader of the Arajs Kommando, which murdered half of Latvia's Jewish population Held in a British internment camp until 1949; evaded prosecution until 1979 when convicted for his involvement in the Rumbula massacre and sentenced to life imprisonment; died in prison in 1988.
Fritz Dietrich August 6, 1898 October 22, 1948 50 years, 77 days Commander of SS police in Liepāja

Responsible for Liepāja massacres

Executed by hanging
Ion Antonescu ReyMiguelDeRumaníaYAntonescu crop.png June 14, 1882 June 1, 1946 63 years, 352 days Leader of Romania during WW2

Responsible for the Odessa massacre, deportations to Transnistria, and the Iași pogrom

Executed by firing squad
Pierre Laval Pierre Laval a Meurisse 1931.jpg June 28, 1883 October 15, 1945 62 years, 109 days Prime Minister of Vichy France Executed by firing squad
Philippe Pétain Pétain - Portrait photographique 1941.jpg April 24, 1856 July 23, 1951 95 years, 90 days Chief of Vichy France Sentenced to death in 1945, but had his sentence commuted to life in prison due to his World War I service and old age; died in custody in 1951
Benito Mussolini Mussolini biografia.jpg July 29, 1883 April 28, 1945 61 years, 273 days Prime Minister of Fascist Italy
Duce of the Italian Social Republic
Executed by firing squad
Vidkun Quisling Portrett av Vidkun Quisling i sivile klær, ukjent datering.jpg July 18, 1887 October 24, 1945 58 years, 98 days Prime Minister of German-occupied Norway Executed by firing squad
Josef Terboven Terboven statsakten.jpg May 23, 1898 May 8, 1945 46 years, 197 days Reichkommissar of German-occupied Europe Committed suicide
Vjekoslav Luburić Vjekoslav Luburić.jpg March 6, 1914 April 20, 1969 55 years, 45 days Croatian Ustaše official who headed the system of concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during much of World War II Murdered in exile
Werner Best Werner Best 1942.jpg July 10, 1903 June 23, 1980 76 years, 349 days Chief of Departament 1 of the Gestapo; initiated a registry of all Jews in Germany

Deputy to Reinhard Heydrich

Sentenced to death in 1948, later to 12 years imprisonment; released in 1951; held in detention in 1958 and charged again of war crimes in 1972; died in 1989 without serving time in prison a second time
Kurt Lischka August 16, 1909 May 16, 1989 79 years, 273 days Chief of the Gestapo and commander of the SiPo and the SD in Paris

Responsible of the single largest mass deportation of French Jews in Occupied France

Sentenced in 1980 to ten years imprisonment; released early on health grounds and died in 1989
Enno Lolling June 19, 1888 May 27, 1945 56 years, 342 days Chief medical officer of all SS concentration camps.
Involved in human experimentation
Committed suicide

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kershaw (2008) Hitler: A Biography, p. 955
  2. ^ Joachimsthaler (1999) [1995] The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth, pp. 160–182
  3. ^ "Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner died in Syria basement in 2001 – report". The Times of Israel. 11 January 2017.
  4. ^ 2014 Annual Report on the Status of Nazi War Criminals (PDF). Los Angeles, California: Simon Wiesenthal Center. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-30. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
  5. ^ Beevor (2002) Berlin: The Downfall 1945, p. 383
  6. ^ Miller (2006) Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1, p. 154
  7. ^ *Matthaūs, Jūrgen. "Anti-Semitism as an Offer: The Function of Ideological indoctrination in the SS and Police Corps During the Holocaust" in Hayes, Peter and Herzog, Dagmar eds. (1991) Lessons and Legacies VII: The Holocaust in International Perspective] Northwestern University Press. p. 119. ISBN 97-80810109551
    • Struve, Kai "Anti-Jewish Violence in the Summer of 1941" in Geissbühler, Simon (2016) Romania and the Holocaust: Events Contexts Aftermath] New York: Columbia University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-3838269245
    • Bubnys, Arŭnas "The Holocaust in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and their Results" in Nikžentaitis, Alvydas; Schreiner, Stefan; and Staliūnas, Darius eds. (2004) The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews] Rodopi. p.210 ISBN 978-9042008502
    • Friedman, Jonathan C. ed. (2010) The Routledge History of the Holocaust] New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1136870590