Nano-

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nano (symbol n) is a unit prefix meaning "one billionth". Used primarily with the metric system, this prefix denotes a factor of 10−9 or 0.000000001. It is frequently encountered in science and electronics for prefixing units of time and length.

Examples
  • Three gold atoms lined up are about one nanometer (nm) long.
  • If a toy marble were scaled down to one nanometer wide, Earth would scale to about 1 meter (3.3 ft) wide.[1]
  • One nanosecond (ns) is about the time required for light to travel 30 cm in air, or 20 cm in an optical fiber.
  • One nanometer per second (nm/s) is approximately the speed that a fingernail grows.

The prefix derives from the Greek νᾶνος (Latin nanus), meaning "dwarf". The General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) officially endorsed the usage of nano as a standard prefix in 1960.

When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as for example in words like "nanoscience"), nano refers to nanotechnology, or means "on a scale of nanometres" (nanoscale).

Prefix Base 10 Decimal Adoption
[nb 1]
Name Symbol
quetta Q 1030 1000000000000000000000000000000 2022
ronna R 1027 1000000000000000000000000000 2022
yotta Y 1024 1000000000000000000000000 1991
zetta Z 1021 1000000000000000000000 1991
exa E 1018 1000000000000000000 1975
peta P 1015 1000000000000000 1975
tera T 1012 1000000000000 1960
giga G 109 1000000000 1960
mega M 106 1000000 1873
kilo k 103 1000 1795
hecto h 102 100 1795
deca da 101 10 1795
100 1
deci d 10−1 0.1 1795
centi c 10−2 0.01 1795
milli m 10−3 0.001 1795
micro μ 10−6 0.000001 1873
nano n 10−9 0.000000001 1960
pico p 10−12 0.000000000001 1960
femto f 10−15 0.000000000000001 1964
atto a 10−18 0.000000000000000001 1964
zepto z 10−21 0.000000000000000000001 1991
yocto y 10−24 0.000000000000000000000001 1991
ronto r 10−27 0.000000000000000000000000001 2022
quecto q 10−30 0.000000000000000000000000000001 2022
Notes
  1. ^ Prefixes adopted before 1960 already existed before SI. The introduction of the CGS system was in 1873.

Nanometre[edit]

One nanometric carbon nanotube, photographed with scanning tunneling microscope
Different lengths as in respect to the electromagnetic spectrum, measured by the metre and its derived scales. The nanometre is often used to express dimensions on an atomic scale and mostly in the molecular scale.
The nanometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the International System of Units (SI), equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (0.000000001 m) and to 1000 picometres. One nanometre can be expressed in scientific notation as 1×10−9 m, and as 1/1000000000 metres.

Nanosecond[edit]

A nanosecond (ns) is a unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) equal to one billionth of a second, that is, 11 000 000 000 of a second, or 10−9 seconds.

The term combines the SI prefix nano- indicating a 1 billionth submultiple of an SI unit (e.g. nanogram, nanometre, etc.) and second, the primary unit of time in the SI.

A nanosecond is equal to 1000 picoseconds or 11000 microsecond. Time units ranging between 10−8 and 10−7 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of nanoseconds.

Time units of this granularity are commonly found in telecommunications, pulsed lasers, and related aspects of electronics.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Size of the Nanoscale". National Nanotechnology Initiative. Retrieved 2020-05-14.