Orders of magnitude (speed)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between approximately 2.2×10−18 m/s and 3.0×108 m/s (the speed of light). Values in bold are exact.

List of orders of magnitude for speed[edit]

Factor (m/s) Value (m/s) Value (km/h) Value (mph) Value (c) Item
10−18 2.2×10−18 7.8×10−18 4.9×10−18 7.3×10−27 Expansion rate between 2 points in free space 1 m apart under Hubble's law.[citation needed]
10−14 1.4×10−14 5.0×10−14 3.1×10−14 4.7×10−23 Cave of the Crystals gypsum crystals' growth rate, the slowest directly measured normal growth rate for any crystal growth process.[1]
3.169×10−14 1.141×10−13 7.089×10−14 1.057×10−22 1 Bubnoff unit (1 μm/yr)
10−13 1×10−13 3×10−13 2×10−13 3×10−22 Rate of erosion of bedrock.[2]
10−12 4.12×10−12 1.48×10−11 9.21×10−12 1.37×10−20 Average growth rate of a limestone stalactite.
10−11 9.8×10−11 3.5×10−10 2.2×10−10 3.2×10−19 Rate of global sea level rise in 1993–2003 (3.1 mm/yr).[3]
10−10 3×10−10 to 3×10−9 1×10−9 to 1×10−8 7×10−10 to 7×10−9 1×10−18 to 1×10−17 Typical relative speed of continental drift.
10−9 1.3×10−9 4.7×10−9 2.9×10−9 4.3×10−18 Average rate of the Moon receding from the Earth (approx. 38 mm/yr).[citation needed]
4.8×10−9 1.7×10−8 1.1×10−8 1.6×10−17 Human hair growth (average rate—note that there is a great range of variation).
10−7 3×10−7 to 1.11×10−5 1.08×10−6 to 4×10−5 6.7×10−7 to 2.5×10−5 1×10−15 to 3.7×10−14 Calculated speed of an amoeba.[4]
10−6 1.52×10−6 5.4×10−6 3.4×10−6 5.1×10−15 Speed of a cellular vesicle propelled by a motor protein.[5]
10−5 1.02×10−5 3.67×10−5 2.28×10−5 3.40×10−14 Speed of the tip of a 7 cm (2.8 in)-long hour hand on a clock.[6]
1.4×10−5 5.0×10−5 3.1×10−5 4.6×10−14 Growth rate of bamboo, the fastest-growing woody plant, over 24 hours.[7]
10−4 4.0×10−4 1.4×10−3 8.9×10−4 1.3×10−12 Speed of Jakobshavn Isbræ, one of the fastest glaciers, in 2003.[8]
6×10−4 2.2×10−3 1.3×10−3 2×10−12 Typical speed of Thiovulum majus, the fastest-swimming bacterium.[9]
10−3 0.00178 0.00641 0.00398 5.94×10−12 The speed of a particle orbiting a ball of lead of radius 1 m near its surface under its gravity (that is, the first cosmic speed for this ball).
0.00275 0.00990 0.00615 9.17×10−12 World record speed of the fastest snail in the Congham, UK.[10]
10−2 0.0476 0.171 0.106 1.58×10−10 Compact cassette tape speed.[11]
0.080 0.29 0.18 2.6×10−10 The top speed of a sloth.
10−1 0.2778 1 0.6214 9.2657×10−10 1 km/h.
0.44704 1.609344 1 1.4912×10−9 1 mph.
0.5144 1.852 1.151 1.716×10−9 1 knot (nautical mile per hour)
100 1.2 4.32 2.68 4×10−9 Typical scanning speed of an audio compact disc; the speed of signals (action potentials) traveling along axons in the human cortex.
1–1.5 3.6–5.4 2.2–3.4 3.3–5.0×10−9 Average walking speed—below a speed of about 2 m/s, it is more efficient to walk than to run, but above that speed, it is more efficient to run.
2.39 8.53 5.35 7.97×10−9 World record time 50m freestyle swim
5.78 20.81 12.93 1.928×10−8 World record time marathon[12]
6–7 20–25 12–15 1.8–2.3×10−8 Comfortable bicycling speed.
101 10.438 37.578 23.35 3.48×10−8 Average speed of Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt while setting the 100m world record in Berlin on 16 August 2009.
12.42 44.72 27.78 4.14×10−8 Top speed reached by Bolt during the same race.
8–14 30–50 18–31 2.7–4.7×10−8 Typical residential speed limit; top speed of a running cat or dog.
14 50 31 4.7×10−8 Typical speed of road-race cyclist.
17 60 37 5×10−8 Typical speed of thoroughbred racehorse or racing greyhound.
5–25 18–90 11–56 1.7–8.3×10−8 Speed of propagation for unmyelinated sensory neurons.
30 110 70 1×10−7 Typical speed of car (freeway); cheetah—fastest of all terrestrial animals; sailfish—fastest fish; speed of go-fast boat.
40 140 90 1.3×10−7 Typical peak speed of a local service train (or intercity on lower standard tracks).
40.05 144.17 89.59 1.335×10−7 Land speed record for a human powered vehicle.[13]
54 195 122 1.8×10−7 Maximum speed a human can attain during a face-down free-fall.
67 240 149 2.2×10−7 The top speed of the world's fastest roller coaster, Formula Rossa.
90 320 200 3×10−7 Typical speed of a modern high-speed train (e.g. latest generation of production TGV); a diving peregrine falcon—fastest bird; 320 km/h or 200 mph is a parameter sometimes used in defining a supercar.[14]
91 328 204 3.04×10−7 Fastest recorded ball (a golf ball) in sports.[15]
102 100.67 362.4 225.18 3.3×10−7 Maximum speed recorded by a MotoGP motorcycle. Set by Johann Zarco during the 2021 Qatar Grand Prix at Losail International Circuit in a Ducati Desmosedici GP21 and Brad Binder during the 2021 Italian Grand Prix at Mugello Circuit in a KTM RC16.[16]
103 370 230 3.44×10−7 Speed of super torpedo VA-111 Shkval.
103.5 372.6 231.5 3.452×10−7 Maximum speed recorded by a Formula One car. Set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix at Monza in a McLaren MP4-20.
105.5 379.8 236 3.52×10−7 Maximum speed of a Ferrari F50 GT1.
113 408 254 3.77×10−7 Fastest non-tornadic wind gust recorded on Earth - at Barrow Island, Australia on April 10, 1996, during Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia.[17]
120 432 270 4.0×10−7 Speed of propagation for mammalian motor neurons.
124.219 447.19 277.87 4.1×10−7 Maximum speed of the Koenigsegg Agera RS (currently the fastest production car in the world).[18]
126–143 452–517 281–321 4.2–4.8×10−7 The fastest wind speed ever recorded on Earth, caused by the 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado.
150.6 539 337 5×10−7 Top speed of an internal-combustion-powered NHRA Top Fuel Dragster.
154 554.4 344.5 5.1×10−7 Speed of the fastest crossbow arrow.
157 575 351 5.2×10−7 Top speed of experimental test TGV train in 2007.
161 580 360 5.4×10−7 Top speed of JR-Maglev in 2003.
250 900 560 8.3×10−7 Typical cruising speed of a modern jet airliner, e.g. an Airbus A380.
314 1,130 702 1×10−6 Top speed of any World War II-era aircraft, the Me 163B V18 set on July 6, 1944.
320 1,200 720 1.07×10−6 The speed of a typical .22 LR bullet.
340.3 1,225 761 1.135×10−6 Speed of sound in standard atmosphere (15 °C and 1 atm).
344.66 1,240.77 770.98 1.15×10−6 Max speed reached by the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC in 1997—Land speed record.[19]
373 1,342.8 833.9 1.2×10−6 Highest speed recorded during a free fall set by Felix Baumgartner.
428 1,540.8 957 1.4×10−6 Max speed of Bell X-1.
464 1,670 1,040 1.55×10−6 Speed of Earth's rotation at the equator.
603 2,170.8 1,350 2×10−6 Speed of the Concorde airliner.
975 3,510 2,180 3.25×10−6 Muzzle velocity of M16 rifle.
981 3,532 2,194 3.27×10−6 SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest aircraft driven by a mechanical jet engine.
103 1,400 5,040 3,100 4.6×10−6 Speed of the Space Shuttle when the solid rocket boosters separate.
1,422 5,119.2 3,181.2 4.7×10−6 The speed of fastest commercial cartridge. (.220 Swift, 1.9 grams (29 gr) bullet and 2.7 grams (42 gr) of 3031 powder.)
1,500 5,400 3,400 5×10−6 Speed of sound in water or in soft tissue.[20]
1,789 6,443 4,002 6×10−6 Speed of BrahMos II hypersonic cruise missile
2,000 7,200 4,500 6.7×10−6 Estimated speed of a thermal neutron.
2,019 7,268.4 4,516 6.7×10−6 Speed of the North American X-15 rocket plane.
2,375 8,550 5,345 7.9×10−6 Escape velocity from Moon.
2,700 9,600 6,000 9×10−6 Speed of wind on exoplanet HD 189733 b.[21]
2,885 10,385 6,453 9.6×10−6 Top speed of the fastest rocket sled.[22]
3,373 12,144 7,546 1.125×10−5 Speed of the unmanned X-43 rocket/scramjet plane.
4,500 16,000 10,000 1.5×10−5 A typical value for the specific impulse of current rockets.
7,700 27,700 17,200 2.57×10−5 Speed of International Space Station and typical speed of other satellites such as the Space Shuttle in low Earth orbit.
7,777 28,000 17,400 2.594×10−5 Speed of propagation of the explosion in a detonating cord.
104 10,600 38,160 23,713.65 0.00004 Speed of propagation of the explosion of Octanitrocubane (ONC).
11,107 39,985.2 24,846 0.00004 Speed of Apollo 10 – high speed record for human-crewed vehicle.
11,200 40,320 25,100 0.00004 Escape velocity from Earth.
16,100 57,900 36,000 0.00005 Fastest projectile velocity (1994).[23]
16,210 58,356 36,261 0.00005 Escape speed from Earth by NASA New Horizons spacecraft—Fastest escape velocity.
17,000 61,000 38,000 0.00006 The approximate speed of the Voyager 1 probe relative to the Sun, when it exited the Solar System.[24]
29,800 107,280 66,700 0.00010 Speed of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.
47,800 172,100 106,900 0.00016 Atmospheric entry speed of the Galileo atmospheric probe—Fastest controlled atmospheric entry for a man-made object.
66,000 240,000 150,000 0.00022 Lower speed bound of the steel plate cap from the Pascal-B nuclear test of Operation Plumbbob.[25][circular reference]
70,220 252,800 157,100 0.00023 Speed of the Helios 2 solar probe.
73,800 265,000 165,000 0.00023 Estimated top speed of the Juno spacecraft (mass ~3600 kg) relative to Earth before insertion into Jupiter's orbit — second fastest man-made technical object.[26]
105 100,000 360,000 224,000 0.0003 Dust particles in dust accelerators can exceed this speed.[27]
140,000 540,000 313,170 0.00047 Approaching velocity of Messier 98 to our galaxy.
192,000 690,000 430,000 0.00064 Predicted top speed of the Parker Solar Probe at its closest perihelion in 2024.[28][29]
200,000 700,000 450,000 0.00070 Orbital speed of the Solar System in the Milky Way galaxy.
308,571 1,080,000 694,288 0.001 Approaching velocity of Andromeda Galaxy to our galaxy.
440,000 1,600,000 980,000 0.0015 Typical speed of the stepped leader of lightning (cf. return stroke below).[30]
445,000 1,600,000 995,000 0.0015 Max velocity of the remaining shell (mass about 0.1 mg) of an inertial confinement fusion capsule driven by the National Ignition Facility for the 'Bigfoot' capsule campaign.[31] Current fastest macroscopic man-made system.
450,000 1,600,000 1,000,000 0.0015 Typical speed of a particle of the solar wind, relative to the Sun.
552,000 1,990,000 1,230,000 0.0018 Speed of the Milky Way, relative to the cosmic microwave background.
617,700 2,224,000 1,382,000 0.0021 Escape velocity from the surface of the Sun.
106 1,000,000 3,600,000 2,200,000 0.0030 Typical speed of a Moreton wave across the surface of the Sun.
1,610,000 5,800,000 3,600,000 0.0054 Speed of hypervelocity star PSR B2224+65, which currently seems to be leaving the Milky Way.
5,000,000 18,000,000 11,000,000 0.017 Estimated minimum speed of star S2 at its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.[32]
107 14,000,000 50,000,000 31,000,000 0.047 Typical speed of a fast neutron.
30,000,000 100,000,000 70,000,000 0.1 Typical speed of an electron in a cathode ray tube.
108 100,000,000 360,000,000 220,000,000 0.3 The escape velocity of a neutron star.
100,000,000 360,000,000 220,000,000 0.3 Typical speed of the return stroke of lightning (cf. stepped leader above).[33]
124,000,000 447,000,000 277,000,000 0.4 Speed of light in a diamond (Refractive index 2.417).
200,000,000 720,000,000 440,000,000 0.7 Speed of a signal in an optical fiber[citation needed].
299,792,456 1,079,252,840 670,615,282 1 − 9×10−9 Speed of the 7 TeV protons in the Large Hadron Collider at full power.[34]
299,792,457.996 1,079,252,848.786 670,616,629.38 1 − 1×10−11 Maximal speed of an electron in LEP (104.5 GeV).
299,792,458 − 1.5×10−15 1,079,252,848.8 − 5.4×10−15 670,616,629.4 1 − 4.9×10−24 Speed of the Oh-My-God particle ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.[35]
299,792,458 1,079,252,848.8 670,616,629.4 1 Speed of light or other electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum or massless particles.
>299,792,458 >1,079,252,848.8 >670,616,629.4 >1 Expansion rate of the universe between objects farther apart than the Hubble radius

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  25. ^ Operation Plumbbob
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