Sukabumi Regency

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Sukabumi Regency
Kabupaten Sukabumi
Regional transcription(s)
 • Sundaneseᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ
Karanghawu Beach.jpg
Pelabuhan Ratu Bay.JPG
Jalan di Pelabuhan Ratu.JPG
Curug Cikaso, Sukabumi.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Karanghawu Beach, Streetscape of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cikaso waterfall, Pelabuhan Ratu Bay
Coat of arms of Sukabumi Regency
Motto(s): 
Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi
Prosperous, Serene, Abundantly Fertile
Location within West Java
Location within West Java
Sukabumi Regency is located in Java
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency
Location in Java and Indonesia
Sukabumi Regency is located in Indonesia
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°59′19″S 106°33′03″E / 6.9886°S 106.5508°E / -6.9886; 106.5508Coordinates: 6°59′19″S 106°33′03″E / 6.9886°S 106.5508°E / -6.9886; 106.5508
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceWest Java
Consolidated1 June 1921
Anniversary Day1 October 1945
Regency seatPalabuhanratu
Administrative divisions47 Districts
386 Villages
Government
 • RegentMarwan Hamami
 • Vice RegentIyos Somantri
Area
 • Total4,145.70 km2 (1,600.66 sq mi)
Highest elevation
3,019 m (9,905 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (mid 2021 estimate)
 • Total2,761,476
 • Density670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postal code(s)
431xx, 433xx
Area code+62 266
Vehicle registrationF
HDIIncrease 0.644 (Medium)
Websitesukabumikab.go.id

Sukabumi Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Sukabumi; Sundanese: ᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ) is a regency (kabupaten) in southwestern Java, as part of West Java province of Indonesia. The regency seat is located in Palabuhan Ratu, a coastal district facing the Indian Ocean. The regency fully encircles the administratively separated city of Sukabumi. Covering an area of 4,145.70 km2, the regency is the largest regency in West Java and the second largest regency on Java after the Banyuwangi Regency in East Java. The regency had a population of 2,341,409 at the 2010 census[2] and 2,725,450 at the 2020 census;[3] the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 2,761,476[4] with a large part of it living in the northeastern part of the regency that encircles Sukabumi City, south of Mount Gede. A plan to create a new regency, the North Sukabumi Regency is currently waiting for the approval of the central government.[5]

Sukabumi is strategically located south of Jabodetabek and west of Bandung Metro, two largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. Geologically, the regency is at the western end of Cimandiri Fault which split the northern plateau and the southern hilly areas.[6][7][8] Its southern region is less populated and contains a high level of biodiversity and significant geological heritage, acknowledged in 2015 by UNESCO with the declaration of Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark located in the southwestern coast of the regency.[9][10][11][12]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area around Sukabumi was already inhabited at least in the 11th century. The first written record found in this area was the Sanghyang Tapak inscription in Cibadak district, 20 km west of Sukabumi. Written in Kawi script, the stone tells about the prohibition of fishing activity in the nearby river by the authorities of the Sunda Kingdom.[13] Another written record found is the undeciphered Pasir Datar Inscription in the Cicantayan subdistrict.

After the fall of Sunda Kingdom in 1579, most of present-day Sukabumi Regency was under the control of Sumedang Larang, while the area west of Mount Gede was controlled by the Banten Sultanate. In 1620, King Aria Suriadiwangsa of Sumedang Larang declared his kingdom as part of Mataram Sultanate.[14][15][16] During this era, Dipati Ukur, the local ruler of present-day Bandung revolted against Mataram after the failed Siege of Batavia. The revolt triggered migration of people from Sumedang Larang to move and settle the area around Palabuhanratu and Jampang to protect themselves from the approaching Mataram troops.[17][18]

After Sultan Agung died in 1645, the Priangan region slowly breaking away from Mataram influence.[19] In 1674, Trunajaya rebellion started in Madura and greatly weakened Mataram.[20] Sukabumi which was still a part of Cianjur was declared itself independent from Mataram under the leadership of Wiratanu I in 1677, when Trunajaya forces sacked the Plered Palace in Mataram's capital.[21][22][23] The Sultanate itself was officially ceded Priangan region west of Citarum to the VOC on October 20, 1677, by an unequal treaty between Amangkurat II and Maetsuycker, as a compensation for Dutch assistance to quell the Trunajaya rebellion.[24][25][26][27] By that time, there were only few rural Sundanese settlements existed, one of the largest was Cikole.[28] Under the leadership of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten tried to reclaim Priangan between 1677 and 1683 via an invasion of Cianjur, however his effort was ultimately failed when Banten descended into civil war between Ageng and his crown prince Abdul Kahhar.[15][21][29][30]

Colonial era[edit]

The inland and coastal areas of Sukabumi were first explored by Europeans at the end of the 17th century, when VOC planned to open plantations throughout Priangan.[31][32] The first Dutch expedition was led in 1687 by Pieter Scipio van Oostende into the remnant of Pakuan and ended on Wijnkoopsbaai (present-day Palabuhanratu).[33][34] The next expeditions were led by Adolf Winkler in 1690,[35] and governor-general Abraham van Riebeeck in 1703, 1704, and 1709. In the 1709 expedition Van Riebeeck passed through Mount Gede and visited southern Sukabumi to check the progress of coffee cultivation in that area.[36][37] One of the first coffee plantation opened by Van Riebeeck was located in present-day Gunungguruh subdistrict.[38] The first coffee harvest was officially sent on April 14, 1711, by Tjiandjoer regent Wiratanu III.[39] In 1723, The coffee plantation areas in Sukabumi were grown, along with the enlargement of Tjiandjoer Regency during the administration of Hendrick Zwaardecroon.[40][41][42]

Formation[edit]

The regency was originally carved out from the colonial era-Tjianjoer Regency. It was then part of the Priangan Residency (Residentie Preanger Regentschappen). In 1776, the regent of Tjianjoer Wiratanu Datar VI created a kepatihan (viceregency) named Tjikole Viceregency which consisted the districts of Goenoengparang, Tjimahi, Tjiheoelang, Tjitjoeroeg, Djampangtengah and Djampangkoelon with its administrative center in Tjikole (now part of Sukabumi).

On January 13, 1815, under the British rule, the Tjikole Viceregency renamed as Soekaboemi Viceregency. The name Soekaboemi was proposed by a Dutch surgeon and plantation owner named Dr. Andries de Wilde, who owned a plantation and resided in the viceregency. The origin of the name came from the combination of two Sanskrit words, Soeka (happiness, likely) and Boemi (earth, land). Thus Soekaboemi could be translated as "Likable Land".

In 1921, by the decree of Governor General Dirk Fock, Tjiandjoer Regency was divided into two regencies which were Tjiandjoer and Soekaboemi regency, effective from June 1, 1921.[43] The first regent of Soekaboemi was R. A. A. Soerianatabrata, who also held position as Sukabumi's last viceregent. He held this position until 1930.[44] From 1926 to 1931, Soekaboemi served as the capital of the short-lived West Priangan Residency.[45][46]

Geography[edit]

The regency borders the Cianjur Regency in the east, Bogor Regency in the north, Lebak Regency in the west, and the Indian Ocean in the south.

Beaches[edit]

Along the southern coast of the regency there are several beaches such as Pasir Putih Beach (Cipanarikan estuary), Pangumbahan Beach (also known as Turtle Beach), Cibuaya Beach and Ujunggenteng Beach. Batununggul Beach is suitable for surfing with average wave height approximately 3 meters in dry season, but only 1 meter in rainy season.[47]

Waterfalls[edit]

The 120-meters Caweni Waterfall is located only 200 metres from Cidolog road, about 70 kilometres south of Sukabumi and about 25 kilometres from Sagaranten District.[48]

The Cikaso Waterfall (Ciniti Waterfall) is located in Jampang Kulon district, 1.5 hours drive (70 kilometres) from Sukabumi City. The waterfall height is 80 metres; it consists of 3 waterfalls, from left to right Asepan Waterfall, Meong Waterfall and Aki Waterfall.[49]

Culture[edit]

Sukabumi with Cianjur is a part of western Parahyangan cultural region, a fertile mountainous region of West Java home to the Sundanese people.

Traditional festivities[edit]

The local people hold the Ocean Fiesta every year on 5 April in Pelabuhan Ratu Beach. There is also Ngabungbang tradition in Cisukawayana river estuary on every full moon of each month in early morning. Ngabungbang or Mass ritual bath is a pre-Islamic tradition since 175-205 BC when King Hyang Brahma ruled Medang Gali (Galuh) Kingdom and continued by Prabu Siliwangi from Sunda Kingdom until now.[50]

Administrative districts[edit]

As at 2021, Sukabumi Regency is divided into forty-seven districts (kecamatan), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 census[2] and the 2020 census,[3] together with the official estimates as at mid 2021.[51] These exclude the further seven districts which are within the city of Sukabumi (and thus administratively outside the regency). The table also includes the locations of the district administrative centres, the number of villages (rural desa and urban kelurahan) in each district, and its postal code.

District Area
km2
Population
2010
census
Population
2020
census
Population
mid 2021
estimate
Administrative
centre (a)
No. of
villages
Post
code
Ciemas (b) 314.14 48,081 55,837 56,557 Tamanjaya 9 43177
Ciracap 134.22 47,495 56,073 56,887 Ciracap 8 43176
Waluran 100.64 25,951 30,788 31,250 Waluran 6 43175
Surade 119.59 72,083 82,173 83,084 Surade 12 43179
Cibitung 90.76 25,066 29,766 30,215 Cibitung 6 43172
Jampang Kulon 69.66 41,396 47,498 48,054 Jampang Kulon 11 43170
Cimanggu 146.16 22,104 26,214 26,606 Cimanggu 6 43178
Kalibunder 85.78 27,175 31,758 32,187 Kalibunder 7 43185
Tegalbuleud 255.52 33,443 36,550 36,804 Tegalbuleud 8 43186
Cidolog 97.72 17,518 17,607 17,666 Mekarjaya 5 43184
Sagaranten 116.65 47,309 53,198 53,716 Sagaranten 12 43181
Cidadap 83.82 18,663 19,877 19,965 Padasenang 6 43183
Curugkembar 62.03 28,463 31,322 31,561 Curugkembar 7 43182
Pabuaran 115.81 39,590 44,621 45,066 Pabuaran 7 43173
Lengkong 141.36 29,222 33,436 33,819 Lengkong 5 43174
Palabuhanratu 91.86 96,675 115,813 117,660 Palabuhanratu 10 43364
Simpenan 170.69 48,281 57,978 58,916 Cidadap 7 43361
Warungkiara 89.66 55,045 65,266 66,241 Warungkiara 12 43362
Bantargadung 75.85 35,234 41,319 41,891 Bojonggaling 7 43363
Jampang Tengah 204.21 63,012 71,007 71,714 Jampang Tengah 11 43171
Purabaya 103.37 39,486 44,816 45,203 Purabaya 7 43187
Cikembar * 81.68 79,303 94,692 96,172 Cikembar 10 43157
Nyalindung 107.92 46,167 52,357 52,911 Nyalindung 10 43196
Gegerbitung * 68.97 36,511 42,383 42,928 Gegerbitung 7 43197 (c)
Sukaraja * 42.13 77,015 94,057 95,735 Sukaraja 9 43192
Kebonpedes 11.36 27,097 33,505 34,144 Kebonpedes 5 43194
Cireunghas * 29.56 31,359 36,160 36,601 Cireunghas 5 43193
Sukalarang * 30.72 41,777 50,559 51,416 Cimangkok 6 43191
Sukabumi * 30.34 46,251 51,505 51,958 Warnasari 6 43151
Kadudampit 69.62 50,319 58,687 59,469 Kadudampit 9 43153
Cisaat * 23.09 113,929 129,643 131,057 Cisaat 13 43152 (d)
Gununggurah * 26.31 48,099 56,764 57,586 Gunungguruh 7 43156
Cibadak * 64.03 107,623 122,288 123,604 Cibadak 10 43351
Cicantayan * 35.81 52,716 60,990 61,754 Cicantayan 8 43155
Caringin * 35.81 43,258 51,235 51,995 Caringin Wetan 9 43154
Nagrak * 69.04 77,782 90,297 91,459 Nagrak Selatan 10 43352
Ciambar * 61.34 36,771 43,253 43,865 Ciambar 6 43356
Cicurug * 46.59 123,088 137,019 138,218 Cicurug 13 43359
Cidahu * 34.58 60,567 74,010 75,335 Jayabakti 8 43358
Parakan Salak * 38.08 39,409 45,911 46,517 Parakan Salak 6 43355
Parung Kuda * 25.87 69,224 78,035 78,814 Sundawenang 8 43357
Bojong Genteng * 17.32 34,900 40,533 41,056 Bojong Genteng 5 43353
Kalapanunggal * 49.09 44,587 52,731 53,505 Kalapanunggal 7 43354
Cikidang * 155.59 55,863 68,841 70,130 Cikidang 12 43367
Cisolok 173.49 62,076 76,235 77,637 Cisolok 13 43366
Cikakak 113.61 37,400 45,316 46,089 Sukamaju 9 43365
Kabandungan * 136.77 37,036 45,527 46,369 Kabandungan 6 43368
Totals 4,145.70 2,341,409 2,725,450 2,761,476 Palabuhanratu 386

Notes: (a) Of the 47 district capitals, 5 are classed as urban kelurahan (Surade, Palabuhanratu, Cibadak, Cicurug and Jampang Kulon) while the other 42 are rated as rural desa.
(b) Ciemas District includes five small offshore islands - Pulau Gotor, Pulau Karanghantu, Pulau Kunti, Pulau Mandra and Pulau Manuk.
(c) except the village of Caringin, with a post code of 43154. (d) except the village of Nagrak, with a post code of 43132, and the village of Sukasari, with a post code of 43134.
The proposed creation of a new North Sukabumi Regency (Kabupaten Sukabumi Utara) will comprise 21 of the above districts from the existing Sukabumi Regency. These 21 districts are indicated by asterisks (*) in the above table.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]