Tasikmalaya Regency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tasikmalaya Regency
Kabupaten Tasikmalaya
Other transcription(s)
 • Sundaneseᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮒᮞᮤᮊ᮪ᮙᮜᮚ
Rice field in Tasikmalaya, West Java
Rice field in Tasikmalaya, West Java
Flag of Tasikmalaya Regency
Coat of arms of Tasikmalaya Regency
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the East Preanger
Beieren van Java (Bavaria of Java)
Motto: 
Sukapura Ngadaun Ngora
Location within West Java
Location within West Java
Tasikmalaya Regency is located in Java
Tasikmalaya Regency
Tasikmalaya Regency
Location in Java and Indonesia
Tasikmalaya Regency is located in Indonesia
Tasikmalaya Regency
Tasikmalaya Regency
Tasikmalaya Regency (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 7°21′38″S 108°06′46″E / 7.3606°S 108.1127°E / -7.3606; 108.1127Coordinates: 7°21′38″S 108°06′46″E / 7.3606°S 108.1127°E / -7.3606; 108.1127
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceWest Java
Regency seatSingaparna
Government
 • RegentAde Sugianto
 • Vice RegentCecep Nurul Yakin
Area
 • Total2,708.82 km2 (1,045.88 sq mi)
Elevation
430 m (1,410 ft)
Population
 (mid 2021 estimate)
 • Total1,883,733
 [1]
Time zoneUTC+7 (IWST)
Area code(+62) 265
Websitetasikmalayakab.go.id

Tasikmalaya Regency (pronounced [ˈtasɪʔməˈlaja]; Indonesian: Kabupaten Tasikmalaya, Sundanese: ᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮒᮞᮤᮊ᮪ᮙᮜᮚ) is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten), or sub-province region, in the province of West Java, Indonesia. Tasikmalaya covers an area of 2,709 km2 and has close to two million residents. (Population as of 2010 census: 1,687,776. 2020 census: 1,865,203[2] mid 2021 official estimate: 1,883,733.[3]) Located in southeastern Priangan (Preanger), the regency is by far the biggest and most important in East Preanger (Indonesian: Priangan Timur). The regency was previously administered from Tasikmalaya City. However Tasikmalaya City and Tasikmalaya Regency now are administratively independent of each other. (The area and population listed above exclude the city.), The administrative centre of the regency is now at Singaparna, west of the city.

Agricultural fields and forestry are the regency's dominant land uses. Most residents are farmers.[4] Tasikmalaya is a major religious centre for West Java. The Regency is known as the city of Muslim students (kota santri),[5] with more than 800 traditional Islamic boarding schools (pesantren).[6] Tasikmalaya is known for handicrafts (Indonesian: kerajinan anyaman) and salak (zalacca).[7] The sub-province's most famous food is hot steamed rice mixed with oncom(nasi tutug oncom).

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The Ten Thousand Hills, hummocky deposits from the eruption of Mount Galunggung

The origin of the name Tasikmalaya is uncertain. The word has no apparent meaning in local languages. Three possibilities have been proposed, all combinations of Sundanese words. (1) The name may be a conflation of tasik and (ma)layah, literally "an ocean of hills".[8] (2) The source words may be tasik, jeung, and laya, meaning "large tracts of sand" (Sundanese: keusik ngalayah, Indonesian: hamparan pasir). (3) The name's original words may be tasik (lake, sea), and malaya (a chain of mountains or highlands), also meaning "an ocean of hills".[9] The "ocean" or large area is presumed to begin at Sukapura,[8] formerly called Tawang or Tawang-Galunggung. Tawang means paddy fields, or literary "a wide range of an open space". The eruption of Mount Galunggung created mountains, hills, and mounds of scattered sand in the formerly open region of Sukapura.

Ancient origins[edit]

a 1920–1935 photograph showing a landscape of Tasikmalaya Regency – Neglasari, Salawu District.

In the 7th to 8th centuries, a realm with an unknown form of governance was centered near Mount Galunggung. The realm had authority to designate the sovereigns of Galuh Kingdom. The rulers of the realm were Batara Semplakwaja, Batara Kuncung Putih, Batara Kawindu, Batara Wastuhayu, and finally Batari Hyang, who changed the form of governance into monarchy[10]

The kingdom was named for the local mountain, Galunggung. According to Geger Hanjuang inscription, the kingdom was established on 13th Bhadrapada 1033 Shaka or 21 August 1111, and Batari Hyang was Galunggung' first king. The Queen owned a famous teaching, known as Sang Hyang Siksakanda ng Kareksian. This teaching of Batari Hyang was still used as an official doctrine in the era of Prabu Siliwangi who is monarch of Pakuan Pajajaran. The Kingdom of Galunggung lasted to its next sixth ruler, each from its hereditary succession.[10]

Modern period[edit]

A road towards Tasikmalaya with Mount Galunggung seen in the distance, 1920–1940.

Further events in the regency's history include when the future governance of Tasikmalaya Regency, Sukakerta, was facing an opportunity to secede from its sovereign ruler, the Pajajaran Kingdom. Prabu Surawisesa, the new succeeding king Sri Baduga Maharaja Prabu Siliwangi, ruled Pajajaran Kingdom at the time. His kingdom encountered an expansive threat from the Banten Sultanate and Demak. This expansion had initiated the lower region to secede from the kingdom. However, Sukakerta is believed to have had already liberated itself from Pajajaran.[10]

Other focal events happened after a ten year-long fight in the region of Priangan. It was when three major forces (Mataram, Banten, and the VOC) having conflicts in the island of Java in the early 17th century. Wirawangsa as the head of Sukakerta, was assigned as the Regent of Sukapura and was honoured a nobility name of Wiradadaha I by Sultan Agung of Mataram. Upon the promotion of its leader, the regency changed its name to Sukapura and the capital of the regency, where earlier located at Dayeuh tengah, was moved to Leuwiloa, Sukaraja.[10]

A photograph of Raden Tumenggung Wirahadiningrat, 1870–1900

Years later, under the governance of Raden Tumenggung Surialaga (1813–14) the capital of the regency was brought to Tasikmalaya, but in 1832, under the governance of Wiradadaha VIII, its capital was moved to Manonjaya. Next, after some consideration, particularly economically, the capital of the regency was again switched back to Tasikmalaya. In 1913, the name of the regency, Sukapura, was finally changed hereafter into Tasikmalaya by the government regent R.A.A Wiratanuningrat (1908–1937).[10]

The date of August 21 has been assigned to be the date of Tasikmalaya Regency's anniversary, following the fact revealed on the Geger Hanjuang inscription. The inscription, as it tells, had been made to mark the establishment of the kingdom of Galunggung and as the mark of the inauguration of its first sovereign, Queen Batari Hyang. The inscription tells that the kingdom was established on 21 August 1111, as well as the Queen's inauguration.[10]

Government Regent history (1641 to 1937)[edit]

  • 1641–1674 : Raden Ngabehi Wirawangsa (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha I)
  • 1674  : Raden Jayamanggala (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha II)
  • 1674–1723 : Raden Anggadipa I (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha III)
  • 1723–1745 : Raden Subamanggala (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha IV)
  • 1745–1747 : Raden Secapati (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha V)
  • 1747–1765 : Raden Jaya Anggadireja (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha VI)
  • 1765–1807 : Raden Djayamanggala II (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha VII)
  • 1807–1837 : Raden Anggadipa II (Raden Tumenggung Wiradadaha VIII)
  • 1837–1844 : Raden Tumenggung Danudiningrat
  • 1844–1855 : Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya
  • 1855–1875 : Raden Tumenggung Wiraadegdana
  • 1875–1901 : Raden Tumenggung Wirahadiningrat
  • 1901–1908 : Raden Tumenggung Prawirahadingrat
  • 1908–1937 : Raden Tumenggung Wiratanuningrat

Governance[edit]

Tasikmalaya Regency is divided into 39 local Districts (Indonesian: Kecamatan, Sundanese: Kacamatan). The districts are subdivided into 351 villages, all classed as rural desa).[11] Singaparna is the administrative centre of the regency.

Districts of Tasikmalaya Regency[12]
  1. Kadipaten
  2. Pagerageung
  3. Ciawi
  4. Sukaresik
  5. Jamanis
  6. Sukahening
  7. Rajapolah
  8. Cisayong
  9. Cigalontang
  10. Sariwangi
  11. Leuwisari
  12. Padakembang
  13. Sukaratu
  14. Singaparna
  15. Salawu
  16. Mangunreja
  17. Sukarame
  18. Manonjaya
  19. Cineam
Tasikmalaya Regency Subdistricts map
  1. Taraju
  2. Puspahiang
  3. Tanjungjaya
  4. Sukaraja
  5. Gunungtanjung
  6. Karangjaya
  7. Bojonggambir
  8. Sodonghilir
  9. Parungponteng
  10. Jatiwaras
  11. Salopa
  12. Culamega
  13. Bantarkalong
  14. Bojongasih
  15. Cibalong
  16. Cikatomas
  17. Cipatujah
  18. Karangnunggal
  19. Cikalong
  20. Pancatengah

Taskimalaya Regency's 39 districts are listed below with their areas and populations. The table also includes the number of administrative villages in each district, and its post code.

Name Area
(in km2)
Population
census
2010[13]
Population
census
2020[2]
Population
estimates
mid 2021[14]
No. of
villages
Post
code
Cipatujah 246.67 62,858 70,904 70,148 15 46187
Karangnunggal 136.33 80,935 88,586 91,868 14 46186
Cikalong * 139.66 61,181 67,803 68,506 13 46195
Pancatengah 201.85 44,618 49,375 49,580 11 46194
Cikatomas 132.68 47,729 52,513 53,478 9 46193
Cibalong 58.58 30,483 32,826 34,634 6 46185
Parungponteng 47.27 33,472 36,792 37,800 8 46189
Bantarkalong 59.83 34,245 37,803 38,324 8 46187
-46188
Bojongasih 38.58 19,178 21,644 21,505 6 46475
Culamega 68.32 22,913 26,684 25,483 5 46188
Bojonggambir 169.29 38,341 43,766 42,519 10 46476
Sodonghilir 93.11 62,580 70,249 69,894 12 46473
Taraju 55.85 37,357 41,505 41,598 9 46474
Salawu 50.50 57,523 63,257 64,814 12 46472
Puspahiang 34.90 32,675 35,060 37,132 8 46471
Tanjungjaya 36.69 42,336 46,235 47,132 7 46184
Sukaraja 43.08 48,792 53,785 54,751 8 46183
Salopa 121.76 48,335 51,349 53,422 9 46192
Jatiwaras 73.37 47,827 52,600 53,365 11 46180
Cineam 78.79 33,288 33,852 39,047 10 46198
Karangjaya 47.90 12,374 12,520 14,416 4 46199
Manonjaya 39.41 60,254 64,115 68,655 12 46197
Gunungtanjung 36.31 27,567 31,225 30,884 7 46418
Singaparna 24.82 65,582 72,161 73,756 10 46411
-46418
Sukarame 19.92 36,758 40,604 43,798 6 46461
Mangunreja 29.64 38,957 42,143 41,404 6 46462
Cigalongtang 119.75 67,668 75,834 75,919 16 46463
Leuwisari 53.26 36,492 40,854 41,019 7 46464
Sariwangi 49.66 30,309 35,268 33,822 8 46465
Padakembang 37.71 35,581 41,021 39,956 5 46466
Sukaratu 57.13 43,875 51,663 49,182 8 46415
Cisayong 59.40 52,728 60,324 60,126 13 46153
Sukahening 28.42 29,373 30,869 33,362 7 46155
Rajapolah 21.45 44,479 50,201 49,977 8 46155
& 46183
Jamanis 21.28 32,251 36,955 36,187 8 46175
Ciawi 45.32 57,593 65,538 64,907 11 46156
Kadipaten 45.79 32,761 39,454 36,230 6 46157
Pagerageung 66.74 51,223 58,514 57,503 10 46158
Sukaresik 17.80 33,184 39,352 37,241 8 46419
Totals 2,708.82 1,675,675 1,865,203 1,883,733 351

Note: * Cikalong District includes two small offshore islands - Pulau Batukolotok and Pulau Nusamanuk.

Geography[edit]

Tasikmalaya Regency's rural area
Tasikmalaya Regency's hilly terrain. Picture taken from Sodong Hilir District of Tasikmalaya Regency

The land of the regency is predominantly hilly, especially in the southern area of the regency. Some are mountainous, as appeared in the northwestern part where Galunggung highlands reside. It is only 13.05% of the region of where its low-lying areas are elevated from zero to 200 metres. The average elevation is 200 to 500 metres.[15] The rest is elevated into the highest point of Mount Galunggung 2,168 metres.[16]

Map showing location of Tasikmalaya Regency, marked green, in West Java.

The regency is traversed by volcanic chains of Java island, where soil is naturally fertile. Water resources are abundant. Tasikmalaya Regency is also situated on a low-cavity mountainside, which supplies the regency more rainfall catchment and water absorption area. These advantages are supported by the regency's tropical rainforest climate where the region experiences heavy rainfall.

The area is known for producing silk goods printed with batik, paper umbrellas, and handbags woven by hand from bamboo and pandanus leaves. The production of handicrafts for domestic and international consumption is an important local industry; in 1998 and 1999, export of handicrafts earned 2.6 billion rupiah for the region.

The regency was a major centre of early support and organization for Darul Islam, an Islamist group formed in 1948 to resist Dutch attempts to retake Java after World War II. After the Dutch were defeated Darul Islam worked to establish a state in Indonesia governed by Islamic law.[17]

Climate[edit]

Like the rest of Preanger's Regencies, the climate of Tasikmalaya Regency is normally a tropical rainforest climate.[18] It receives an average annual precipitation of 2.072 m.[19] Although it experiences heavy rainfall[18] the regency gets considerably an equable amount of heat. The average daily temperature of the regency are mildly varied, it ranges from 20° to 34 °C at lowland areas and 18° to 22 °C at the upland areas.[19]

Location[edit]

Following the excision of Tasikmalaya City, the residual Tasikmalaya Regency comprises an area of 2,708.82 km2.[20] It is bounded on the east by Garut Regency, marked by the Galunggung highlands, from southwest along to the northwest. Far to the north, the regency borders on Majalengka Regency and continues to the east with Ciamis Regency and Tasikmalaya City, the latter which it surrounds on three sides. Finally, to the south, Tasikmalaya Regency is bounded by the Indian Ocean. Tasikmalaya Regency's greatest distance from north to the south is about 75 km, and about 56.25 km from east to the west.[21]

Places of interest[edit]

Kampung Naga, a well-known tourist destination in Tasikmalaya Regency

Tasikmalaya Regency is one of Indonesia's foremost tourist destinations.[22] It has a number of tourist attractions. They are accessible, even though most of them are located deep in the rural area of the regency. In the southern area, where the regency borders to Indian Ocean, tourist destinations are primarily the coastline of the regency, which features caves and a number of beaches. To the interior where the land mostly hilly and characterised by tropical rainforest, waterfalls, natural hot springs, and archaeological sites are the most visited attractions.

Among Tasikmalaya Regency's tourist destinations are Kampung Naga (Dragon Village). It features an exotic and idyllic traditional village where inhabitants have a strong ancient Sundanese tradition.[citation needed] Mount Galunggung's volcanic crater is scenic, featuring a lake surrounded by rainforests. A number of natural hot springs are issued nearby the mountain, and became parts of the regency's tourist destinations.[23]

List of tourist destinations in Tasikmalaya Regency[edit]

There are more than 70 spots of tourist destinations in Tasikmalaya Regency, some of them are listed below.[23]

  • Ponpes Suryalaya
  • Cakrabuana site
  • Geger sunten site
  • Cipacing hotspring
  • Pamoyanan hotspring
  • Rajapolah handicrafts' centre
  • Citiis waterfall
  • KH. Z. Mustofa grave
  • Pamijahan sacred grave
  • Manonjaya mosque
  • Tanjungmalaya
  • Cirahong bridge
  • Gimbal and Cilangkap sites
  • Kabuyutan Ngarantengah site
  • Rd. A. Dewi Sartika grave
  • Sukapura museum
  • Batik of Sukaraja
  • Baginjing grave
  • Cigunung hotspring
  • Bumi Rongsok site
  • Cimanintin waterfall
  • Rangga Wulung cave
  • Cibalong hotspring
  • Cupu Agung cave
  • Hulu Kuya cave
  • Malawang cave
  • Arca and Wayang caves
  • Nyai cave and Ciodeng cave
  • Jasper Geopark
  • Karangtawulan beach
  • Cimanuk beach
  • Sindangjaya beach
  • Padabumi beach
  • Kalaparea beach
  • Sheikh Zaenudin sacred grave
  • Garuda Ngupuk
  • Parat cave and Lalay cave
  • Cimaranggi cave
  • Cipatujah beach
  • Cipatujah hotspring
  • Bubujung beach
  • Joglo sacred grave
  • Sarongge cave
  • Ambu Hawuk cave
  • Dengdeng waterfall
  • Sindangkerta/Taman Lengser beach
  • Pamayangsari beach
Taraju, one of Tasikmalaya Regency's tourist destinations

Jasper Geopark[edit]

Mount Galunggung's volcanic crater

At Pasirgintung village, Cibuniasih subdistrict, Pancatengah district there are a lot of Red Jasper rocks previously, but now only about 120 rocks. The administration will conserve it as Jasper Geopark. Jasper has class-7 hardness.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  2. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  4. ^ "Population and Labour force – West Java" (PDF). West Java Government. 2008. p. 88. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  5. ^ Mencari Kota Santri. Times Indonesia. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  6. ^ Christomy 1959, p. 22.
  7. ^ "Agriculture – West Java" (PDF). West Java Government. 2008. p. 330. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  8. ^ a b "Toponimi Jawa Barat" (PDF) (in Indonesian). West Java Government. pp. 64, 110. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
  9. ^ Permadi 1975, p. 3.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Sejarah Singkat Kabupaten Tasikmalaya" (in Indonesian). Tasikmalaya Regency Government. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  11. ^ "Government – West Java" (PDF). West Java Government. 2008. p. 39. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  12. ^ "Kabupaten Tasikmalaya" (PDF) (in Indonesian). West Java Central Agency for Statistic. 2004. p. 19. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  13. ^ Population by Region, Urban/Rural, and Sex — Tasikmalaya Regency
  14. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Selayang Pandang Kabupaten Tasikmalaya" (in Indonesian). West Java Government. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  16. ^ "Geographical Condition – West Java" (PDF). West Java Government. 2008. p. 14. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  17. ^ Horikoshi, Hiroko (1975). The Dar ul-Islam movement in West Java (1948–62): an experience in the historical process. Indonesia 20:58-86.
  18. ^ a b "Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  19. ^ a b "Peta Jawa Barat" (in Indonesian). West Java Government. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  20. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2020.
  21. ^ "Peta Jawa Barat" (in Indonesian). West Java Government. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  22. ^ "Best Places to Visit in Tasikmalaya Regency". June 24, 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Peta Obyek Wisata Tasik" (in Indonesian). Tasikmalaya Regency Government. Retrieved 6 January 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |authorlink= (help)
  24. ^ Jasper Geopark

Notes[edit]

  • Christomy, Tommy (1959), "Signs of the Wali: Narratives at the sacred sites in Pamijahan, West Java", 201, (Canberra, AU), 2008, ISBN 978-1-921313-69-1. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
  • Permadi, Agus (September 1975), "Prasasti Geger Hanjuang; Ngahanjuang-siangkeun Hari Jadi Tasikmalaya", Mangle, 495, (Bandung, ID), 2009, cited in Miftahul Falah (August 21, 2009), "Etimologi Tasikmalaya", (in Indonesia). Retrieved 6 January 2011.

External links[edit]