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Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a perennial flowering plant in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to Europe and Asia. In the summer when the mature plant may have a height of 1.5 metres (5 feet), it bears sweetly scented pink or white flowers that attract many fly species, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis. Valerian has been used as a herb in traditional medicine since at least the time of ancient Greece and Rome; Hippocrates described its properties and Galen later prescribed it as a remedy for insomnia. This valerian flower was photographed in Niitvälja, Estonia, in 2021.Photograph credit: Ivar Leidus