Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)

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Sir Barton, the first Triple Crown winner, at the 1919 Preakness Stakes

In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the Triple Crown, is a series of horse races for three-year-old Thoroughbreds, consisting of the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes. The three races were inaugurated in different years, the last being the Kentucky Derby in 1875. The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950 but awarded to all previous winners as well as those after 1950, is awarded to a horse who wins all three races and is thereafter designated as a Triple Crown winner. The races are traditionally run in May and early June of each year, although global events have resulted in schedule adjustments, such as in 1945 and 2020.

The first winner of all three Triple Crown races was Sir Barton in 1919. Some journalists began using the term Triple Crown to refer to the three races as early as 1923, but it was not until Gallant Fox won the three events in 1930 that Charles Hatton of the Daily Racing Form put the term into common use.

13 horses have won the Triple Crown: Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), Affirmed (1978), American Pharoah (2015), and Justify (2018). As of 2023, American Pharoah and Justify are the only living Triple Crown winners.

James E. "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons was the first trainer to win the Triple Crown more than once; he trained both Gallant Fox and Omaha for the Belair Stud. Gallant Fox and Omaha are also the only father-son pair to each win the Triple Crown. Bob Baffert became the second trainer to win the Triple Crown more than once, training American Pharoah and Justify. Belair Stud and Calumet Farm are tied as owners with the most Triple Crown victories with two apiece; Calumet's winners were Whirlaway and Citation. Eddie Arcaro rode both of Calumet's Triple Crown champions and is the only jockey to win more than one Triple Crown. Willie Simms is the only African-American jockey to win all three races that would compose the triple crown. During the 1898 Preakness Stakes he rode a different horse, Sly Fox and won the race.

Secretariat holds the stakes record time for each of the three races. His time of 2:24 for 1+12 miles in the 1973 Belmont Stakes also set a world record that still stands.[1]


The three Triple Crown races had existed long before the series received its name: the Belmont Stakes was first run in 1867, the Preakness in 1873,[2] and the Kentucky Derby in 1875. The term “triple crown” was in use at least by 1923, although Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term in 1930.[3]

The order in which the races are run has varied. From 1932 through 2019, the Kentucky Derby was run first, followed by the Preakness, and then the Belmont.[4] Running the three races in a five-week span was instituted in 1969.[5] The Preakness was run before the Kentucky Derby 11 times, most recently in 1931.[6][7] Two times— May 12, 1917, and May 13, 1922 — the Kentucky Derby and Preakness were run on the same day.[5]

Scheduling has occasionally been affected by global events. During World War II, the 1945 Kentucky Derby was moved from May 5 to June 9, with the Preakness and Belmont following on June 16 and June 23, respectively.[8] In 2020, the Triple Crown was altered from its usual sequence due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The adjusted schedule started with the Belmont Stakes on June 20, at the shortened distance of 1+18 miles (9 furlongs). The Kentucky Derby ran on September 5, and finally the Preakness on October 3.[4] 2020 also marked the first time for the Belmont Stakes to be run as the opening leg of the Triple Crown.[9]

The Triple Crown Trophy

Each Triple Crown race is open to both colts and fillies. Although fillies have won each of the individual Triple Crown races, none has won the Triple Crown itself.[10] Despite attempts to develop a "Filly Triple Crown" or a "Triple Tiara" for fillies only, no set series of three races has consistently remained in the public eye, and at least four different types of races have been used. Two fillies won the series of the Kentucky Oaks, the Pimlico Oaks (now the Black-Eyed Susan Stakes), and the Coaching Club American Oaks, in 1949 and 1952, but the racing press did not designate either accomplishment as a "Triple Crown". In 1961, the New York Racing Association created a filly Triple Crown of in-state races only, but the races changed over the years. Eight fillies won the NYRA Triple Tiara between 1968 and 1993.[11]

Gelded colts may run in any of the three races today, but they were prohibited from entering the Belmont between 1919 and 1957. Geldings have won each of the individual races,[12][13] but like fillies, no gelding has ever won the Triple Crown. The closest was Funny Cide, who won the Derby and the Preakness in 2003.[14]

Each of the races is held on a dirt track, rather than the turf surfaces commonly used for important races elsewhere in the world.

Triple Crown races
Kentucky Derby
"The Run for the Roses"
Preakness Stakes
"The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans"
Belmont Stakes
"The Test of the Champion"
Date First Saturday in May Third Saturday in May Third Saturday following the Preakness
(first or second Saturday in June)
Current Track Churchill Downs Pimlico Race Course Belmont Park
Location Louisville, Kentucky Baltimore, Maryland Elmont, New York
Distance 1+14 miles (10 furlongs; 2,000 m) 1+316 miles (9.5 furlongs; 1,900 m) 1+12 miles (12 furlongs; 2,400 m)
Background Inaugurated in 1875, the race was originally 1+12 miles (2,400 m) until 1897 when it was shortened to its current distance. It is the only one of the three races to have run continuously from its inception. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kg) and fillies 121 pounds (55 kg). The field has been limited to 20 horses since 1975. Started in 1873 and continuously run since 1894, it is the shortest of the three races. Pimlico was the home of the race from 1873 to 1889 and again from 1908 until the present. The Preakness was not run from 1891 to 1893. Weights are the same as for the Derby. Field is limited to 14 horses. Begun in 1867, it is the oldest of the three races, though not held in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-gambling legislation in New York. Race was held at various New York tracks until 1905 when Belmont Park became the permanent location. Distance varied from 1+58 to 1+18 miles (2,600 to 1,800 m) until set at 1+12 miles (2,400 m) in 1926, making it the longest of the three. Weight assignments are the same as the other two races. Field is limited to 16 horses.
The Kentucky Derby Trophy

The Woodlawn Vase

The August Belmont Trophy


The sixth winner, Count Fleet, in the 1943 Kentucky Derby
The seventh winner, Assault in 1946 with Warren Mehrtens, jockey
American Pharoah, the 12th winner, at the 2015 Preakness Stakes
Triple Crown winners[15]
Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Breeder Colors
1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross John E. Madden
1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1935 Omaha Willie "Smokey" Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud
1937 War Admiral Charles Kurtsinger George Conway Samuel D. Riddle Samuel D. Riddle
1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz Fannie Hertz
1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch King Ranch Assault
1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm
1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable Meadow Stable
1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner Jr. Mickey and Karen L. Taylor,
Tayhill Stable/Jim Hill, et al.
Ben S. Castleman
1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm Harbor View Farm Affirmed
2015 American Pharoah Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert Ahmed Zayat Ahmed Zayat American Pharoah
2018 Justify Mike Smith Bob Baffert China Horse Club
Head of Plains Partners
Starlight Racing
WinStar Farm
John D. Gunther Justify and Justify
During his 2018 bid for the Triple Crown, Justify used the colors of WinStar Farms (white, green and black star) for the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. The colors of China Horse Club (red, yellow stars and sleeves) were used in the Belmont Stakes.

At completion of the 2016 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 4,224 entrants. Of these, 292 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 52 horses have won two of the races (23 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and 13 horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

10 of the 13 winners have been "homebreds", owned at the time of their win by their breeders.[16]

Jim Fitzsimmons and Bob Baffert are the only two trainers to have two horses win the Triple Crown, with Fitzsimmons training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha and Baffert training 2015 winner American Pharoah and 2018 winner Justify. The wins by Fitzsimmons were also the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, had a repeat win of the Triple Crown. Calumet Farm is the only other owner with two Triple Crown horses, 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation. Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, both for Calumet, Whirlaway and Citation. Those two horses' trainers, Ben Jones and Jimmy Jones, were father and son.

All 13 horses were foaled in the United States. Most owners, trainers, and jockeys were American-born, though there were number of exceptions: jockey Johnny Longden was born in England and raised in Canada; Ron Turcotte was Canadian. French-born jockey Jean Cruguet; and jockey Victor Espinoza, from Mexico. Jockey Willie Saunders is considered a Canadian jockey because he spent part of his childhood there, but was born in Montana. Laz Barrera, trainer of Affirmed, was from Cuba; Secretariat's trainer, Lucien Laurin was Canadian. Owner Fannie Hertz was married to John D. Hertz, who was born in Slovakia; owner Ahmed Zayat was born in Egypt. The horse Sir Barton was foaled in the United States but had a Canadian owner, J. K. L. Ross, at the time of his Triple Crown win. Justify's large ownership group included individuals from both the United States and China.


Secretariat holds the stakes record for each of the Triple Crown races, the Kentucky Derby (1:59 2/5), the Preakness Stakes (1:53), and the Belmont Stakes (2:24).[17][18]

At 18, Steve Cauthen became the youngest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding Affirmed in 1978. At 52, Mike Smith became the oldest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding Justify in 2018.

Other notable achievements[edit]

Only one horse, Alydar, placed (finished second) in all three races. He was defeated each time by Affirmed in 1978 by a combined margin of two lengths. His trainer John Veitch is the only trainer to have done this with one horse. In 1995, D. Wayne Lukas became the first and only major figure (owner, jockey, or trainer) to win all three Triple Crown races with different horses, Thunder Gulch in the Derby and Belmont, Timber Country in the Preakness. Lukas also is the only trainer to have won six consecutive Triple Crown races, adding his 1995 wins, having won the 1994 Preakness and Belmont with Tabasco Cat and the 1996 Derby with Grindstone.[19]

Like Veitch, only with two different horses, Bob Baffert also had second-place finishes in all three legs of the Triple Crown, both owned by Ahmed Zayat: in 2012, Bodemeister finished second in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness stakes to I'll Have Another, then Paynter was entered and finished second to Union Rags.[20] Baffert and Zayat teamed up again for the 2015 Triple Crown victory of American Pharoah.

Gallant Fox is the only Triple Crown winner to sire another U.S. Triple Crown winner, Omaha. Affirmed sired Peteski, winner of the 1993 Canadian Triple Crown.[21]

Jockey Julie Krone became the first (and currently only[22]) woman to win a Triple Crown race when she won the 1993 Belmont Stakes aboard Colonial Affair.

Whirlaway, in addition to winning the 1941 Triple Crown, also won the Travers Stakes that year, the first and only horse to date to accomplish that feat. American Pharoah, in addition to winning the 2015 Triple Crown, also won the Breeders' Cup Classic that year. As the Breeders' Cup was not established until 1984, American Pharoah was the first (and currently only) horse to sweep those four races, a feat now known as the Grand Slam.[23][24]

Arcangelo won the 2023 Belmont Stakes, making Jena Antonucci the first female trainer to win a Triple Crown race.[25]

Gaps between wins[edit]

Horses leaving the Belmont Park starting gate at the beginning of a horse race
California Chrome (second from right) was stepped on by the number 3 horse while leaving the starting gate at the 2014 Belmont Stakes

After the first Triple Crown winner, Sir Barton, in 1919, there was not another winner until Gallant Fox in 1930, a gap of 11 years. Between 1930 and 1948, seven horses won the Triple Crown, with five years being the longest gap between winners. However, following the 1948 win of Citation, there was a considerable gap of 25 years before Secretariat ended the drought of Triple Crown champions in 1973. Between 1973 and 1978, there were three Triple Crown winners.

After Affirmed's Triple Crown in 1978, the longest drought in Triple Crown history began in 1979 with Spectacular Bid's failed Triple Crown attempt when he finished third in the Belmont. It lasted until American Pharoah won in 2015.

Between 1979 and 2014, thirteen horses won both the Derby and Preakness, but not the Belmont. Of those, Real Quiet came the closest, losing the Belmont Stakes by a nose in 1998. Another dramatic near-miss was Charismatic, who led the Belmont Stakes in the final furlong in 1999, but fractured his left front leg in the final stretch and fell back to third. Five other horses lost the Kentucky Derby but won the Preakness and the Belmont, and three won the Derby and the Belmont, but not the Preakness.

The 37-year gap between the Triple Crown wins of Affirmed and American Pharoah drew criticism of the system. As far back as 1986, reporters noted that horses who were fresh for the Belmont had an advantage.[26] In 2003, Gary Stevens stated in an interview with Charlie Rose that he did not believe there would be another Triple Crown winner because of the tendency for owners to put fresh horses in the Preakness and Belmont Stakes.[27] California Chrome co-owner Steve Coburn was particularly critical of the Triple Crown system in post-Belmont remarks in 2014; he considered the system to be unfair, arguing that there would never be another Triple Crown winner in his lifetime unless only horses that competed in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness competed at the Belmont. By 2014, six of the previous eight Belmont winners had not competed in either of the first two legs of the Triple Crown.[28] Additionally, from 2006 to 2014, the Belmont winner was a horse who had not competed in the Preakness.[29][30]

Unsuccessful bids[edit]

Big Brown, the winner of the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, at the 2008 Belmont Stakes, where he was pulled up and did not finish.

Since all three events were inaugurated, as of 2023, 23 horses have won the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont (ten of which placed):

Another 30 horses have won two of the three triple crown races in other combinations.

Sponsorship and broadcasting[edit]

The first national television broadcast of a Triple Crown race occurred with the 1948 Belmont Stakes on CBS.[citation needed] The Preakness Stakes was first broadcast on television in 1949, and the Kentucky Derby was first televised in 1952.[46] Originally, the three races largely organized their own nominations procedure, marketing and television broadcast rights. In 1985, Triple Crown Productions was created when the owner of Spend a Buck chose not to run in the other two Triple Crown races because of a financial incentive offered to any Kentucky Derby winner who could win a set of competing races in New Jersey. The organizers of the three races realized that they needed to work together.[47]

Efforts to unify the sponsorship and marketing of all three Triple Crown races began in 1987 when ABC Sports negotiated a deal with Chrysler to pay $5 million to any horse that swept all three races, and $1 million each year there was no Triple Crown sweep to the horse with the highest combined Triple Crown finish.[48] This sponsorship lasted until 1993. The end of the $1 million participation bonus was linked to the breakdown of Prairie Bayou at the Belmont Stakes that year and the uncomfortable situation that arose when the Kentucky Derby winner, Sea Hero, was given the bonus following a seventh-place finish.[47]

In 1995, Visa took over the sponsorship with a 10-year contract, naming the series the Visa Triple Crown and offering only the $5 million bonus to a horse that could sweep the Triple Crown.[49] Along with sponsorship by Visa, NBC Sports paid $51.5 million for broadcast rights to all three races, with the revenue split giving 50% of the total to Churchill Downs and 25% each to Pimlico and to the New York Racing Association (NYRA).[47]

The Visa deal—and the cooperative effort—ended after 2005. The NYRA felt that they did not get a fair share of the revenue, particularly when the Belmont had the highest ratings of all three races in the years where a Triple Crown was on the line.[47] From 2001 through 2013, average viewership for the Belmont was 7 million when the Triple Crown was not at stake, whereas viewership averaged 13 million when it was.[a][50] With the contract term ending, the NYRA went to ESPN on ABC for the 2006 Belmont, while the broadcasts of the Derby and Preakness remained with NBC.[47] Visa chose to remain as a sponsor of only Kentucky Derby for the next five years.[49] As a result of the divided broadcast, Triple Crown Productions was unable to obtain a new sponsor.[47]

Today Triple Crown Productions LLC, based at Churchill Downs, is responsible for collecting nominations to the annual Triple Crown races.[51]

Years Sponsor Bonuses
1987–1993 Chrysler Corporation $1 million (best overall record)
$5 million (three wins)
1995–2005 Visa $5 million (three wins)

In February 2011, ABC/ESPN dropped out of the negotiations to renew broadcast rights to the Belmont Stakes. NBC obtained the contract through 2015, once again uniting all three races on the same network.[52][53][54] In 2014, NBC extended their contract for the Kentucky Derby through 2025.[55] NBC then renewed its rights to the Preakness and Belmont through 2022.[56] In January 2022, Fox Sports acquired the broadcast rights to the Belmont Stakes for eight years beginning in 2023.[57]

Individual race winners[edit]

Key for full list of race winners
Denotes winners of the Triple Crown
* Denotes winners of the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont
# Denotes other winners of any other combination of 2 out of the 3 Triple Crown races
Full list of race winners
Year Kentucky Derby Preakness Stakes Belmont Stakes
1867 Ruthless[Fy]
1868 General Duke
1869 Fenian
1870 Kingfisher
1871 Harry Bassett
1872 Joe Daniels
1873 Survivor Springbok
1874 Culpepper Saxon
1875 Aristides Tom Ochiltree Calvin
1876 Vagrant Shirley Algerine
1877 Baden-Baden # Cloverbrook # Cloverbrook
1878 Day Star # Duke of Magenta # Duke of Magenta
1879 Lord Murphy Harold Spendthrift
1880 Fonso # Grenada # Grenada
1881 Hindoo # Saunterer # Saunterer
1882 Apollo Vanguard Forester
1883 Leonatus Jacobus George Kinney
1884 Buchanan Knight of Ellerslie Panique
1885 Joe Cotton Tecumseh Tyrant
1886 Ben Ali The Bard Inspector B
1887 Montrose Dunboyne Hanover
1888 Macbeth II Refund Sir Dixon
1889 Spokane Buddhist Eric
1890 Riley Montague[b] Burlington
1891 Kingman RNR Foxford
1892 Azra RNR Patron
1893 Lookout RNR Commanche
1894 Chant Assignee[c] Henry of Navarre
1895 Halma # Belmar[c] # Belmar
1896 Ben Brush Margrave[c] Hastings
1897 Typhoon II Paul Kauvar[c] Scottish Chieftain
1898 Plaudit Sly Fox[c] Bowling Brook
1899 Manuel Half Time[c] Jean Bereaud
1900 Lieut. Gibson Hindus[c] Ildrim
1901 His Eminence The Parader[c] Commando
1902 Alan-a-Dale Old England[c] Masterman
1903 Judge Himes Flocarline[Fy][c] Africander
1904 Elwood Bryn Mawr[c] Delhi
1905 Agile Cairngorm[c] Tanya[Fy]
1906 Sir Huon Whimsical[Fy][c] Burgomaster
1907 Pink Star Don Enrique[c] Peter Pan I
1908 Stone Street Royal Tourist[c] Colin
1909 Wintergreen Effendi Joe Madden
1910 Donau Layminster Sweep
1911 Meridian Watervale RNR
1912 Worth Colonel Holloway RNR
1913 Donerail Buskin Prince Eugene
1914 Old Rosebud Holiday Luke McLuke
1915 Regret[Fy] Rhine Maiden[Fy] The Finn
1916 George Smith Damrosch Friar Rock
1917 Omar Khayyam[d] Kalitan[d] Hourless
1918 Exterminator War Cloud[e]
Jack Hare Jr.[e]
1919 Sir Barton † Sir Barton † Sir Barton
1920 Paul Jones # Man o' War # Man o' War
1921 Behave Yourself Broomspun Grey Lag
1922 Morvich[d] # Pillory[d] # Pillory
1923 # Zev Vigil # Zev
1924 Black Gold Nellie Morse[Fy] Mad Play
1925 Flying Ebony Coventry American Flag
1926 Bubbling Over Display Crusader
1927 Whiskery Bostonian Chance Shot
1928 Reigh Count Victorian Vito
1929 Clyde Van Dusen Dr. Freeland Blue Larkspur
1930 Gallant Fox † Gallant Fox † Gallant Fox
1931 # Twenty Grand Mate # Twenty Grand
1932 * Burgoo King * Burgoo King Faireno
1933 Brokers Tip Head Play Hurryoff
1934 Cavalcade High Quest Peace Chance
1935 Omaha † Omaha † Omaha
1936 * Bold Venture * Bold Venture Granville
1937 War Admiral † War Admiral † War Admiral
1938 Lawrin Dauber Pasteurized
1939 # Johnstown Challedon # Johnstown
1940 Gallahadion # Bimelech # Bimelech
1941 Whirlaway † Whirlaway † Whirlaway
1942 # Shut Out Alsab # Shut Out
1943 Count Fleet † Count Fleet † Count Fleet
1944 * Pensive * Pensive Bounding Home
1945 Hoop Jr. Polynesian Pavot
1946 Assault † Assault † Assault
1947 Jet Pilot Faultless Phalanx
1948 Citation † Citation † Citation
1949 Ponder # Capot # Capot
1950 # Middleground Hill Prince # Middleground
1951 Count Turf Bold Counterpoint
1952 Hill Gail Blue Man One Count
1953 Dark Star # Native Dancer # Native Dancer
1954 Determine Hasty Road High Gun
1955 Swaps # Nashua # Nashua
1956 # Needles Fabius # Needles
1957 Iron Liege Bold Ruler Gallant Man
1958 * Tim Tam * Tim Tam Cavan
1959 Tomy Lee Royal Orbit Sword Dancer
1960 Venetian Way Bally Ache Celtic Ash
1961 * Carry Back * Carry Back Sherluck
1962 Decidedly Greek Money Jaipur
1963 # Chateaugay Candy Spots # Chateaugay[f]
1964 * Northern Dancer * Northern Dancer Quadrangle[f]
1965 Lucky Debonair Tom Rolfe Hail To All[f]
1966 * Kauai King * Kauai King Amberoid[f]
1967 Proud Clarion # Damascus # Damascus[f]
1968 * Forward Pass[g] * Forward Pass Stage Door Johnny
1969 * Majestic Prince * Majestic Prince Arts and Letters
1970 Dust Commander Personality High Echelon
1971 * Canonero II * Canonero II Pass Catcher
1972 # Riva Ridge Bee Bee Bee # Riva Ridge
1973 Secretariat † Secretariat † Secretariat
1974 Cannonade # Little Current # Little Current
1975 Foolish Pleasure Master Derby Avatar
1976 # Bold Forbes Elocutionist # Bold Forbes
1977 Seattle Slew † Seattle Slew † Seattle Slew
1978 Affirmed † Affirmed † Affirmed
1979 * Spectacular Bid * Spectacular Bid Coastal
1980 Genuine Risk[Fy] Codex Temperence Hill
1981 * Pleasant Colony * Pleasant Colony Summing
1982 Gato Del Sol Aloma's Ruler Conquistador Cielo
1983 Sunny's Halo Deputed Testamony Caveat
1984 # Swale Gate Dancer # Swale
1985 Spend A Buck Tank's Prospect Creme Fraiche
1986 Ferdinand Snow Chief Danzig Connection
1987 * Alysheba * Alysheba Bet Twice
1988 Winning Colors[Fy] # Risen Star # Risen Star
1989 * Sunday Silence * Sunday Silence Easy Goer
1990 Unbridled Summer Squall Go And Go
1991 Strike the Gold # Hansel # Hansel
1992 Lil E. Tee Pine Bluff A.P. Indy
1993 Sea Hero Prairie Bayou Colonial Affair
1994 Go for Gin # Tabasco Cat # Tabasco Cat
1995 # Thunder Gulch Timber Country # Thunder Gulch
1996 Grindstone Louis Quatorze Editor's Note
1997 * Silver Charm * Silver Charm Touch Gold
1998 * Real Quiet * Real Quiet Victory Gallop
1999 * Charismatic * Charismatic Lemon Drop Kid
2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Red Bullet Commendable
2001 Monarchos # Point Given # Point Given
2002 * War Emblem * War Emblem Sarava
2003 * Funny Cide * Funny Cide Empire Maker
2004 * Smarty Jones * Smarty Jones Birdstone
2005 Giacomo # Afleet Alex # Afleet Alex
2006 Barbaro Bernardini Jazil
2007 Street Sense Curlin Rags to Riches[Fy]
2008 * Big Brown * Big Brown Da' Tara
2009 Mine That Bird Rachel Alexandra[Fy] Summer Bird
2010 Super Saver Lookin at Lucky Drosselmeyer
2011 Animal Kingdom Shackleford Ruler on Ice
2012 * I'll Have Another * I'll Have Another Union Rags[h]
2013 Orb Oxbow Palace Malice
2014 * California Chrome * California Chrome Tonalist
2015 American Pharoah † American Pharoah † American Pharoah
2016 Nyquist Exaggerator Creator
2017 Always Dreaming Cloud Computing Tapwrit
2018 Justify † Justify † Justify
2019 Country House[i] War of Will Sir Winston
2020 Authentic[j] Swiss Skydiver[Fy][j] Tiz the Law[j]
2021 Mandaloun[k] Rombauer Essential Quality
2022 Rich Strike Early Voting Mo Donegal
2023 Mage National Treasure Arcangelo
  1. ^ These were 2002 for War Emblem, 2003 for Funny Cide and 2004 for Smarty Jones.[47]
  2. ^ The 1890 Preakness Stakes was held at Morris Park Racecourse in The Bronx, New York.[58]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o From 1894 to 1908, the Preakness Stakes were held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York.[58]
  4. ^ a b c d In 1917 and 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were held on the same day.
  5. ^ a b The 1918 Preakness Stakes was held in two divisions due to a large field. War Cloud won one and Jack Hare Jr. the other.
  6. ^ a b c d e Due to reconstruction at Belmont Park, the Belmont Stakes were held at Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, New York from 1963 to 1967.
  7. ^ Dancer's Image was disqualified as the winner of the 1968 Kentucky Derby due to a post-race failed drug test.
  8. ^ I'll Have Another was scratched the afternoon prior to the Belmont due to tendonitis and was unable to attempt to win the race.
  9. ^ Maximum Security was disqualified as the winner of the 2019 Kentucky Derby after he was judged to have interfered with another horse.
  10. ^ a b c Due to concerns amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the three races were held out of order: Belmont Stakes, Kentucky Derby, then Preakness Stakes. The Belmont was run at 1 1/8 mile.
  11. ^ Medina Spirit was disqualified as the winner of the 2021 Kentucky Derby for a failed drug test.
  • [Fy] Denotes a filly. Fillies won the Kentucky Derby in 1915, 1980, and 1988, Preakness Stakes in 1903, 1906, 1915, 1924, 2009, and 2020, and Belmont Stakes in 1867, 1905, and 2007.
  • RNR Race not run. The Belmont was not run in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-betting legislation passed in New York State. The Preakness did not run 1891–1893.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Secretariat remains No. 1 name in racing". ESPN. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Christine, Bill (June 4, 1989). "The Spoilers: Last Jewel of Triple Crown Has Been Stolen 11 Times--Will Sunday Silence Be Next Victim of an Upset?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  3. ^ Liebman, Bennett (April 24, 2008). "The Rail: The Race for the Triple Crown - Origins of Triple Crown". The New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
  4. ^ a b Whyno, Stephen (May 19, 2020). "Belmont set for June 20 without fans, leads off Triple Crown". Associated Press. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
  5. ^ a b Janack, Phil (2020). "Delayed Preakness Poised to Make History". Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  6. ^ Steadman, John (May 18, 1994). "Spreading out Triple Crown will help set it apart". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  7. ^ Wade, Jake (May 9, 1931). "It's the Preakness Today; And Derby is One Week Off". The Charlotte Observer. p. 18. Retrieved June 20, 2020 – via
  8. ^ Hanson, Vance (March 19, 2020). "1945 – When the Kentucky Derby moved from May to June". Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  9. ^ Darcy, Kieran (June 18, 2020). "What to know ahead of an unusual Belmont Stakes". Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  10. ^ Beyer, Andrew (June 12, 2007). "Where Are the Fillies?". Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  11. ^ Genaro, Teresa (June 7, 2011). "The Triple Tiara". Hello Race Fans. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  12. ^ Drape, Joe (June 1, 2003). "Where No Gelding Has Gone Before". New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  13. ^ "History: Horses". Belmont Stakes. Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  14. ^ Kane, Mike (June 6, 2014). "10 things to know about the Triple Crown". Courier-Journal. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  15. ^ "Triple Crown Winners". The New York Racing Association. June 8, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  16. ^ Angst, Frank (June 10, 2015). "The Figs: American Pharoah's Triple Crown". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  17. ^ "Sham: In the Shadow of a Superhorse". California Thoroughbred. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
  18. ^ Hegarty, Matt (June 19, 2012). "Secretariat awarded Preakness record at 1:53 after review". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
  19. ^ Christine, Bill (December 29, 2011). "10 most unbreakable records (10-6)". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
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