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In Indonesia, village or subdistrict is the fourth-level subdivision and the smallest administrative division of Indonesia below a district, regency/city, and province. There are a number of names and types for villages in Indonesia, with desa (rural village) being the most frequently used for regencies and kelurahan (urban village) for cities. According to the 2019 report by the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are 8,488 urban villages and 74,953 rural villages in Indonesia.
Types of villages
Kelurahan is an urban village terminology primarily used in cities, but also tiny parts of regencies. It is commonly translated to English as subdistrict. The leader of kelurahan is called lurah. A lurah is a civil servant appointed by the district head. According to the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 31 of 2006, a kelurahan can be created with the following criteria:
- Java and Bali: having at least 4,500 residents or 900 families within an area of at least 3 km2.
- Sumatra and Sulawesi: having at least 2,000 residents or 400 families within an area of at least 5 km2.
- Kalimantan, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Papua: having at least 900 residents or 180 families within an area of at least 7 km2.
A kelurahan must have a government office, an established transportation network, adequate communication facilities, and public facilities. If it no longer meets the above conditions it can be abolished or combined with other kelurahans based on the results of research and studies conducted by the city/regency government.
Desa is a rural village terminology used in the majority of regencies in Indonesia. However, several provinces have adopted their own terminology for their traditional villages (desa adat). The leader of a desa does not have a civil servant status and is chosen by the public through an election. According to the Law Number 6 of 2014, desa and desa adat are legal community units that have territorial boundaries that are authorized to regulate and administer government affairs, community interests based on community initiatives, original rights, and/or traditional rights recognized and respected in the government system of the Republic of Indonesia.
Variations of desa terminology in Indonesia include:
- Gampong in Aceh
- Nagari in West Sumatra (except Mentawai Islands Regency)
- Dusun in Bungo Regency (Jambi)[a]
- Kampung in some places in Indonesia:[b]
- Pekon in Pringsewu, Tanggamus, and West Lampung regencies (Lampung)
- In Bali, there are two forms of desa, i.e. desa dinas (service village) and desa adat (cultural village). Desa dinas deals with administrative functions, while desa adat deals with religious and cultural functions.
- Lembang in Tana Toraja and North Toraja regencies (South Sulawesi)
- Kalurahan in Special Region of Yogyakarta.
Number of villages
|Provinces||Number of villages as of 2019|
|Bangka Belitung Islands||82||309||391|
|Special Capital Region of Jakarta||267||0||267|
|Special Region of Yogyakarta||46||392||438|
|West Nusa Tenggara||142||995||1,137|
|East Nusa Tenggara||327||3,026||3,353|
- Village-owned enterprise (Indonesian: Badan Usaha Milik Desa), a type of company that is managed and established by an Indonesian village
- ^[a] In other places, "dusun" is an administrative division form below "desa".
- ^[b] In other places, "kampung" is equal with "dusun", except in Bungo, Jambi.
- "Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 72 Tahun 2019 tentang Perubahan atas Permendagri nomor 137 Tahun 2017 tentang Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan". Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 72 of 2019 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Minister of Home Affairs.
- "Nama Kecamatan, Ibukota dan Jumlah Desa/Kelurahan di Kota Jambi, 2015". Statistics Indonesia. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Nama Kecamatan, Ibukota dan Jumlah Desa/Kelurahan di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi, 2015". Statistics Indonesia. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 31 Tahun 2006 tentang Pembentukan, Penghapusan, Dan Penggabungan Kelurahan - Kemendagri". Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 31 of 2006 (in Indonesian). Minister of Home Affairs.
- "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 Tentang Desa". Law No. 6 of 2014 (PDF) (in Indonesian). People's Representative Council.
- "Qanun Provinsi Aceh Nomor 5 Tahun 2003 Tentang Pemerintahan Gampong". Qanun No. 5 of 2003 (in Indonesian). Government of Aceh.
- "Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Sumatera Barat Nomor 7 Tahun 2018 Tentang Nagari". Regional Regulation No. 7 of 2018 (in Indonesian). Government of West Sumatra.
- "Mendagri Setujui Perda Desa Adat". Bali Post. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Toraja Utara Nomor 3 Tahun 2014 Tentang Pemerintahan Lembang". Regional Regulation No. 3 of 2014 (in Indonesian). North Toraja Regency.
- "Peraturan Gubernur Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Nomor 25 Tahun 2019 Tentang Pedoman Kelembagaan Urusan Keistimewaan Pada Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota Dan Kalurahan". Governor Regulation No. 25 of 2019 (in Indonesian). Governor of Yogyakarta.