|Current: 95th Academy Awards|
|Awarded for||Excellence in the American and International film industry|
|Presented by||Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|
|First awarded||May 16, 1929|
|Network||List of broadcasters|
The Academy Awards, mainly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the film industry. They are presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), in recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The Academy Awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment industry in the United States and worldwide. The Oscar statuette depicts a knight rendered in the Art Deco style.
The major award categories are presented during a live televised Hollywood ceremony that is typically held in February or March. It is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony. The 1st Academy Awards were held in 1929, the second ceremony in 1930 was the first one broadcast by radio, and the 1953 ceremony was the first one televised. It is also the oldest of the four major annual American entertainment awards; its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5 ($85 at 2020 prices). Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes.
For this first ceremony, winners were announced to the media three months earlier. For the second ceremony in 1930, and the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards. In 1940, the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the following year the Academy started using a sealed envelope to reveal the names of the winners.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. At that time, winners were recognized for the entirety of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.
At the 29th ceremony, held in 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category, now known as Best International Feature Film, was introduced. Until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award.
Perhaps the most widely seen streaker in history was 34-year-old Robert Opel, who streaked across the stage of The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles flashing a peace sign on national US television at the 46th Academy Awards in 1974. Bemused host David Niven quipped, "Isn't it fascinating to think that probably the only laugh that man will ever get in his life is by stripping off and showing his shortcomings?" Later, evidence arose suggesting that Opel's appearance was facilitated as a publicity stunt by the show's producer Jack Haley Jr..
Robert Metzler, the show's business manager, believed that the incident had been planned in some way; during the dress rehearsal Niven had asked Metzler's wife to borrow a pen so he could write down the famous line, which was thus not the ad-lib it appeared to be.
From 1973 to 2020 and since 2022, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. For 2021, this tradition was broken as the ceremony ended with the Academy Award for Best Actor.
Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress presents the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
Tom Hanks announced, at the 2020 Oscar Ceremony, the opening of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures on December 14, 2020. The museum development started in 2017 under Kerry Brougher, but is now led by Bill Kramer. The industry-curated exhibits are geared toward the history of motion pictures and the art & science of film making, exhibiting trailblazing directors, actors, film-makers, sound editors and more, and the museum houses famous artifacts from acclaimed movies such as Dorothy's Ruby Red Slippers from The Wizard of Oz.
The 93rd Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2020 and early 2021, was held on April 25, 2021, after it was postponed from its original February 28, 2021, schedule due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cinema. As with the two previous ceremonies, there was no host. The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. It took place at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles, California for the 19th consecutive year, along with satellite location taking place at the Union Station also in Los Angeles. Because of the virus impact on films and TV industries, Academy president David Rubin and CEO Dawn Hudson announced that for the 2021 Oscar Ceremony, streaming movies not shown in theaters would be eligible, though at some point the requirement that movies be shown in theaters would return.
Academy Award of Merit
The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.856 kg), and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.
Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years, the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award statuettes. From 1983 to 2015, approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company. It would take between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry, now owned and operated by UAP Urban Art Projects. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology. The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months. R.S. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating.
The origin of the nickname of the trophy has been disputed as multiple people have taken credit for naming the trophy "Oscar".
Bette Davis, in her 1962 autobiography, claimed she named it in 1936 after her first husband, Harmon Oscar Nelson, of whom the statue's rear end reminded her. But the term had been in use at least two years before, and in a 1974 biography written by Whitney Stine with commentary from Davis, Davis wrote "I relinquish once and for all any claim that I was the one — so, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the honor is all yours."
Margaret Herrick, librarian and president of the Academy, may have said she named it after her supposed uncle Oscar in 1921.[a] The only corroboration was a 1938 clipping from the Los Angeles Examiner, in which Herrick told a story of her and her husband joking with each other using the phrase, "How's your uncle Oscar".
Columnist Sidney Skolsky wrote in his 1970 memoir that he came up with the term in 1934 under pressure for a deadline, mocking Vaudeville comedians who asked "Will you have a cigar, Oscar?" The Academy credits Skolsky with "the first confirmed newspaper reference" to Oscar in his column on March 16, 1934, which was written about that year's 6th Academy Awards. But in the newspaper clipping that Skolsky referred to, he wrote that "these statues are called 'Oscars'", meaning that the name was already in use.
Bruce Davis, a former executive director of the Academy, credits Eleanore Lilleberg, a secretary at the Academy when the award was first introduced, for the nickname, as she had been in charge of pre-ceremony handling of the awards. Davis credits Lilleberg because he found in an autobiography of Einar Lilleberg, Eleanore's brother, that Einar had referenced a Norwegian army veteran named Oscar that the two knew in Chicago, whom Einar described as having always "stood straight and tall." He asserts credit "should almost certainly belong to" Lilleberg.
To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates. Until 2010, winners returned their statuettes to the Academy and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars. Since 2010, winners have had the option of having engraved nameplates applied to their statuettes at an inscription-processing station at the Governor's Ball, a party held immediately after the Oscar ceremony. The R.S. Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled.
Ownership of Oscar statuettes
Prior to 1950, Oscar statuettes were (and remain) the property of the recipient. Since then the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that the statuette be first offered for sale back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards predating this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums.
In 1989, Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Best Picture Oscar for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days to a movie prop collector. The Academy earned enforcement of its statuette contract by gaining a permanent injunction against the sale.
In 1992, Harold Russell consigned his 1946 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for The Best Years of Our Lives to auction to raise money for his wife's medical expenses. Though his decision caused controversy, the first Oscar ever to be sold passed to a private collector on August 6, 1992 for $60,500 ($126,200 today). Russell defended his action, saying, "I don't know why anybody would be critical. My wife's health is much more important than sentimental reasons. The movie will be here, even if Oscar isn't."
In December 2011, Orson Welles' 1941 Oscar for Citizen Kane (Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction, after his heirs won a 2004 court decision contending that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy. On December 20, 2011, it sold in an online auction for US$861,542 ($1,120,800 today).
Some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.
Other awards presented by the Academy
In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually):
- Governors Awards:
- The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards:
- Academy Award of Merit (non-competitive) (in the form of an Oscar statuette);
- Scientific and Engineering Award (in the form of a bronze tablet);
- Technical Achievement Award (annual) (in the form of a certificate);
- The John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation (since 1978) (in the form of a medal);
- The Gordon E. Sawyer Award (since 1982); and
- The Academy Student Academy Awards (annual).
The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting.
From 2004 to 2020, the Academy Award nomination results were announced to the public in mid-January. Prior to that, the results were announced in early February. In 2021, the nominees were announced in March. In 2022, the nominees were announced in early February for the first time since 2003.
Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) since the 7th Academy Awards in 1935. The firm mails the ballots of eligible nominees to members of the Academy in December to reflect the previous eligible year with a due date sometime in January of the next year, then tabulates the votes in a process that takes thousands of hours.
All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.
New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.
In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the Los Angeles Times were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. 33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%).
In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.
According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify (except for the Best International Feature Film, Best Documentary Feature, and awards in short film categories). Additionally, the film must be shown at least three times on each day of its qualifying run, with at least one of the daily showings starting between 6 pm and 10 pm local time.
For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, The Hurt Locker, was originally first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards, as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards. Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film for consideration in the International Feature Film category per year.
Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with a minimum projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels. Since the 90th Academy Awards, presented in 2018, multi-part and limited series have been ineligible for the Best Documentary Feature award. This followed the win of O.J.: Made in America, an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN, in that category in 2017. The Academy's announcement of the new rule made no direct mention of that film.
The Best International Feature Film award does not require a U.S. release. It requires the film to be submitted as its country's official selection.
The Best Documentary Feature award requires either week-long releases in both Los Angeles County and any of the five boroughs of New York City during the previous calendar year,[b] or a qualifying award at a competitive film festival from the Documentary Feature Qualifying Festival list (regardless of any public exhibition or distribution), or submission in the International Feature Film category as its country's official selection. The qualifying theatrical runs must meet the same requirements as those for non-documentary films regarding numbers and times of screenings. Additionally, a film must have been reviewed by a critic from The New York Times, Time Out New York, the Los Angeles Times, or LA Weekly.
Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year. The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases.
Awards in short film categories (Best Documentary Short Subject, Best Animated Short Film, and Best Live Action Short Film) have noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering one year starting on October 1st, and ending on September 30th of the calendar year before the ceremony. Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a week-long theatrical release in either New York City or Los Angeles County during the eligibility period. Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of several competitive film festivals designated by the Academy, also without regard to prior public distribution. Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in an appropriate category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible (Documentary category for that award, and Animation, Narrative, Alternative, or International for the other awards). The requirements for the qualifying theatrical run are also different from those for other awards. Only one screening per day is required. For the Documentary award, the screening must start between noon and 10 pm local time; for other awards, no specific start time is required, but the film must appear in regular theater listings with dates and screening times. In late December, ballots, and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially. In certain categories, including International Feature Film, Documentary and Animated Feature, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches.
In most categories, the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members. Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting. Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects.
Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season. The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders. For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee The Hurt Locker was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (The Hurt Locker eventually won).
Academy Screening Room
The Academy Screening Room or Academy Digital Screening Room is a secure streaming platform which allows voting members of the Academy to view all eligible films (except, initially, those in the International category) in one place. It was introduced in 2019, for the 2020 Oscars, though DVD screeners and Academy in-person screenings were still provided. For films to be included on the platform, the North American distributor must pay $12,500, including a watermarking fee, and a digital copy of the film to be prepared for streaming by the Academy. The platform can be accessed via Apple TV and Roku players. The watermarking process involved several video security firms, creating a forensic watermark and restricting the ability to take screenshots or screen recordings.
In 2021, for the 2022 Oscars, the Academy banned all physical screeners and in-person screenings, restricting official membership viewing to the Academy Screening Room. Films eligible in the Documentary and International categories were made available in different sections of the platform. Distributors can also pay an extra fee to add video featurettes to promote their films on the platform. The in-person screenings were said to be cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Eligible films do not have to be added to the platform, but the Academy advertises them to voting members when they are.
The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this (the artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast).
The Academy Awards is the world's longest-running awards show televised live from the U.S. to all time zones in North America and worldwide, and gathers billions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world. The Oscars were first televised in 1953 by NBC, which continued to broadcast the event until 1960, when ABC took over, televising the festivities (including the first color broadcast of the event in 1966) through 1970. NBC regained the rights for five years (1971–75), then ABC resumed broadcast duties in 1976 and its current contract with the Academy runs through 2028. The Academy has also produced condensed versions of the ceremony for broadcast in international markets (especially those outside of the Americas) in more desirable local timeslots. The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since 1970, but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast. By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by 1984, the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries.
The ceremonies were moved up from late March/early April to late February, since 2004, to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success coinciding with the NCAA basketball tournament, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. (In 1976 and 1977, ABC's regained Oscars were moved from Tuesday to Monday and went directly opposite NBC's NCAA title game.) The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. Some years, the ceremony is moved into the first Sunday of March to avoid a clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover and Easter, which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public. Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The production of the Academy Awards telecast currently holds the distinction of winning the most Emmys in history, with 47 wins and 195 nominations overall since that award's own launch in 1949.
After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p.m Pacific, since the 1999 ceremonies, it was moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm ET/5:30 pm PT. The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided, and an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier. For many years the film industry opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office. In 2010, the Academy contemplated moving the ceremony even further back into January, citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail). Furthermore, a January ceremony on Sunday would clash with National Football League playoff games. In 2018, the Academy announced that the ceremony would be moved from late February to mid February beginning with the 92nd Academy Awards in 2020.
Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. On March 30, 1981, the 53rd Academy Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C.
In 1993, an In Memoriam segment was introduced, honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members. This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a "popularity contest" feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead. This segment was later followed by a commercial break.
In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes. In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards announced winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion. In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker. During the 2018 ceremony, host Jimmy Kimmel acknowledged how long the ceremony had become, by announcing that he would give a brand-new jet ski to whoever gave the shortest speech of the night (a reward won by Mark Bridges when accepting his Best Costume Design award for Phantom Thread). The Wall Street Journal analyzed the average minutes spent across the 2014–2018 telecasts as follows: 14 on song performances; 25 on the hosts' speeches; 38 on prerecorded clips; and 78 on the awards themselves, broken into 24 on the introduction and announcement, 24 on winners walking to the stage, and 30 on their acceptance speeches.
Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards has steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18–49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Following the show, Variety reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions. In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract neither contains any notable changes nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast.
Historically, the telecast's viewership is higher when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture award. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated a box office haul during its initial 1997–98 run of US$600.8 million in the US, a box office record that would remain unsurpassed for years. The 76th Academy Awards ceremony, in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture, drew 43.56 million viewers. The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970. Hoping to reinvigorate the pre-show and ratings, the 2023 Oscars organizers hired members of the Met Gala creative team
By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings, despite how much critical acclaim those films have received. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budget independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%. In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest-rated and least-watched ceremony at the time, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards. The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independent film (No Country for Old Men).
Whereas the 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers, the 93rd Academy Awards drew an even lower viewership of 10.4 million, the lowest viewership recorded by Nielsen since it started recording audience totals in 1974. The 94th and 95th editions drew 16.6 and 18.7 million viewers, still below the audience of the 92nd edition.
The Academy Film Archive holds copies of every Academy Awards ceremony since the 1949 Oscars and material on many prior ceremonies, along with ancillary material related to more recent shows. Copies are held in a variety of film, video and digital formats.
In 1929, the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. From 1930 to 1943, the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles.
Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theatre at what had been the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.
From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957 took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre, after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California, in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Downtown Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the ceremony returned to the Shrine Auditorium.
Awards of Merit categories
|1927/28||Best Production Design|
|1927/28||Best Adapted Screenplay|
|1930||Best Animated Short Film|
|1931/32||Best Live Action Short Film|
|1934||Best Film Editing|
|1934||Best Original Score|
|1934||Best Original Song|
|1936||Best Supporting Actor|
|1936||Best Supporting Actress|
|1939||Best Visual Effects|
|1940||Best Original Screenplay|
|1941||Best Documentary Short Film|
|1943||Best Documentary Feature Film|
|1947||Best International Feature Film|
|1948||Best Costume Design|
|1981||Best Makeup and Hairstyling|
|2001||Best Animated Feature Film|
In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup.
In August 2018, the Academy announced that several categories would not be televised live, but rather be recorded during commercial breaks and aired later in the ceremony. Following dissent from Academy members, they announced that they would indeed air all 24 categories live. This followed several proposals (among them, the introduction of a Popular Film category) that the Academy had announced but did not implement.
- Best Assistant Director: 1932/33 to 1937
- Best Director, Comedy Picture: 1927/28
- Best Director, Dramatic Picture: 1927/28
- Best Dance Direction: 1935 to 1937
- Best Original Musical or Comedy Score: 1995 to 1998
- Best Original Story: 1927/28 to 1956
- Best Short Subject – 1 Reel: 1936 to 1956
- Best Short Subject – 2 Reel: 1936 to 1956
- Best Short Subject – Color: 1936 to 1937
- Best Short Subject – Comedy: 1931/32 to 1935
- Best Short Subject – Novelty: 1931/32 to 1935
- Best Sound Editing: 1963 to 2019
- Best Title Writing: 1927/28
- Best Unique and Artistic Production: 1927/28
The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following categories have been proposed:
- Best Casting: rejected in 1999
- Best Popular Film: proposed in 2018 for presentation at the 2019 ceremony; postponed until the 2020 ceremony at the earliest (yet to be implemented)
- Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991 to 2012
- Best Title Design: rejected in 1999
The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. They are not always presented on an annual basis.
Current special categories
- Academy Honorary Award: since 1929
- Academy Scientific and Technical Award (three different awards): since 1931
- Gordon E. Sawyer Award: since 1981
- Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award: since 1957
- Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: since 1938
- Academy Special Achievement Award: from 1972 to 1995, and again for 2017
Discontinued special categories
- Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960
Criticism and controversies
Accusations of commercialism
Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, many studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season." This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than by quality. William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself."
Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 1980s, moneymaking "formula-made" blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure.
A recent technique that has been claimed to be used during the Oscar season is the whisper campaign. These campaigns are intended to spread negative perceptions of other movies nominated and are believed to be perpetrated by those that were involved in creating the movie. Examples of whisper campaigns include the allegations against Zero Dark Thirty suggesting that it justifies torture and the claim that Lincoln distorts history.
Accusations of bias
Typical criticism of the Academy Awards for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.S. in the last three months of the calendar year. The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. The term "Oscar bait" was coined to describe such movies. This has led, at times, to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.g., by favoring "Oscar bait" over audience favorites or favoring historical melodramas over critically acclaimed movies that depict current life issues.
Allegations of a lack of diversity
The Academy Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees. This criticism is based on the statistics from every Academy Awards since 1929, which show that only 6.4% of academy award nominees have been non-white and since 1991, 11.2% of nominees have been non-white, with the rate of winners being even more polarizing. Due to a variety of reasons, including marketability and historical bans on interracial couples, a number of high-profile Oscars have been given to yellowface portrayals, as well as performances of Asian characters rewritten for white characters. It took until 2023 for an Asian woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress, when Michelle Yeoh received the award for her performance in Everything Everywhere All at Once. The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, popularized on social media with the hashtag #OscarsSoWhite, based on activists' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by 2020. Some media critics claim the Academy's efforts to address its purported racial, gender and national biases are merely distractions. By contrast, the Golden Globe Awards already have multiple winners of Asian descent in leading actress categories. Some question whether the Academy's definition of "merit" is just or empowering for non-Americans.
Miscategorization of actors
The Academy doesn't have any rules for how to categorize whether a performance is leading or supporting, and it is up to the discretion of the studios whether a given performance is submitted for either Best Actor/Actress or Best Supporting Actor/Actress. This has led situations where a film has two or more co-leads, and one of these is submitted in a supporting category to avoid the two leads competing against each other, and to increase the film's chances of winning. This practice has been derisively called "category fraud". For example, Rooney Mara was nominated for Best Supporting Actress for Carol (2015), despite her having a comparable amount of screentime to Cate Blanchett, who was nominated for Best Actress. Another example is Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019), where Brad Pitt was nominated for and won Best Supporting Actor, even though he played an equally important role to Best Actor nominee Leonardo DiCaprio. In both these cases, critics argued that The Weinstein Company, the studio behind both films, had placed someone who was actually a leading actor or actress into the supporting categories to avoid them competing against their co-lead.
Symbolism or sentimentalization
Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity, to make up for a "snub" for a work that proved in time to be more popular or renowned than the one awarded, or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.
Recognition of streaming media film
Following the 91st Academy Awards in February 2019 in which the Netflix-broadcast film Roma had been nominated for ten awards including the Best Picture category, Steven Spielberg and other members of the Academy discussed changing the requirements through the Board of Governors for films as to exclude those from Netflix and other media streaming services. Spielberg had been concerned that Netflix as a movie production and distribution studio could spend much more than typical Oscar-winning films and have much wider and earlier distribution than other Best Picture-nominated films, while still being able to meet the minimal theatrical-run status to qualify for an Oscar.
The United States Department of Justice, having heard of this potential rule change, wrote a letter to the Academy in March 2019, cautioning them that placing additional restrictions on films that originate from streaming media services without proper justification could raise anti-trust concerns against the Academy. Following its April 2019 board meeting, the Academy Board of Governors agreed to retain the current rules that allow for streaming media films to be eligible for Oscars as long as they enjoy limited theatrical runs.
2022 Will Smith and Chris Rock slapping incident
During the 94th Academy Awards on March 27, 2022, Chris Rock joked about Jada Pinkett Smith's shaved head, with a G.I. Jane reference. Will Smith walked onstage and slapped Rock across the face, then returned to his seat and told Rock, twice, to "Keep my wife's name out [of] your fucking mouth!" While later accepting the Best Actor award for King Richard, Smith apologized to the Academy and the other nominees, but not to Rock. Rock decided not to press charges against Smith.[relevant?]
On April 8, 2022, the Academy made an announcement on a letter sent by president David Rubin and CEO Dawn Hudson informing the public that Will Smith is banned from the Oscars for 10 years in result from the slap.
Refusals of the award
Some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was screenwriter Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild. Nichols eventually accepted the 1935 award three years later, at the 1938 ceremony. Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards during his career.
George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton) at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott described it as a "meat parade", saying, "I don't want any part of it."
The third person to refuse the award was Marlon Brando, who refused his award (Best Actor for 1972's The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando asked actress and civil rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech in his place, detailing his criticisms, for which there was booing and cheering by the audience. Littlefeather was much later discovered to have falsely misrepresented her ancestry as Native American, that is, she was found to be a pretendian.
Seven films have had nominations revoked before the official award ceremony:
- The Circus (1928) – The film was voluntarily removed by the Academy from competitive categories, to award Charlie Chaplin a special award.
- Hondo (1953) – Removed from the Best Story ballot after letters from the producer and nominee questioned its inclusion in the category.
- High Society (1955) – Withdrawn from screenwriting ballot after being mistaken for the 1956 movie of the same title.
- The Godfather (1972) – Initially nominated for eleven awards, its nomination for Best Original Score was revoked after it was discovered that its main theme was very similar to music that the score's composer had written for an earlier film. None of its other nominations were revoked, and it received three Oscars, including Best Picture.
- A Place in the World (1992) – Removed from the Best Foreign Language Film ballot after it was discovered that the country which submitted the film exercised insufficient artistic control.
- Alone Yet Not Alone (2014) – The film's title song, "Alone Yet Not Alone", was removed from the Best Original Song ballot after Bruce Broughton was found to have improperly contacted other members of the academy's musical branch; this was the first time that a film was removed from a ballot for ethical reasons.
- 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi (2017) – Sound mixer Greg P. Russell's nomination was rescinded one day before the Awards when it was discovered he had improperly contacted voters by telephone. In this case, the nominations for the other three nominated sound mixers, Gary Summers, Jeffrey J. Haboush and Mac Ruth, were allowed to stand.
One film was disqualified after winning the award, and had the winner return the Oscar:
- Young Americans (1969) – Initially won the award for Best Documentary Feature, but was later revoked after it was revealed that it had opened theatrically prior to the eligibility period.
One film had its nomination revoked after the award ceremony when it had not won the Oscar:
- Tuba Atlantic (2011) – Its nomination for Best Live Action Short Film was revoked when it was discovered that the film had aired on television in 2010, before its theatrical release.
The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards:
- BAFTA Awards
- César Awards
- David di Donatello Awards
- Goya Awards
- Nominees luncheon
- Governors Awards
- The 25th Independent Spirit Awards (2010), usually held in Santa Monica, California the Saturday before the Oscars, marked the first time it was moved to a Friday and a change of venue to L.A. Live
- The annual "Night Before," traditionally held at the Beverly Hills Hotel, begun in 2002 and generally known as the party of the season, benefits the Motion Picture & Television Fund, which operates a retirement home for SAG actors in the San Fernando Valley
- Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party airs the awards live at the nearby Pacific Design Center
- The Governors Ball is the Academy's official after-party, including dinner (until 2011), and is adjacent to the awards-presentation venue
- The Vanity Fair after-party, historically at the former Morton's restaurant, has been at the Sunset Tower since 2009
- Ariel Award in Mexico
Presenter and performer gifts
It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners. The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. In 2014, the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000. The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status. Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones, a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing, weight-loss gummie candy and up to $25,000 worth of cosmetic treatments and rejuvenation procedures such as lip fillers and chemical peels from New York City facial plastic surgeon Konstantin Vasyukevich. Some of the gifts have even had a "risque" element to them; in 2014, the adult products retailer Adam & Eve had a "Secret Room Gifting Suite." Celebrities visiting the gifting suite included Judith Hoag, Carolyn Hennesy, Kate Linder, Chris Mulkey, Jim O'Heir and John Salley.
Television ratings and advertisement prices
From 2006 onwards, results are Live+SD; all previous years are live viewing.
|2020||23.6||Not available||Not available|
|2019||29.6||Not available||Not available|
|2018||26.5||Not available||Not available|
|2017||32.9||Not available||Not available|
|2016||34.3||Not available||Not available|
|2014||43.740||1.8 – 1.9||2.23 – 2.35|
|2013||40.376||1.65 – 1.8||2.07 – 2.26|
|1992||44.406||Not available||Not available|
|1991||42.727||Not available||Not available|
|1982||46.245||Not available||Not available|
|1981||39.919||Not available||Not available|
|1980||48.978||Not available||Not available|
|1979||46.301||Not available||Not available|
|1978||48.501||Not available||Not available|
|1977||39.719||Not available||Not available|
|1976||46.751||Not available||Not available|
|1975||48.127||Not available||Not available|
|1974||44.712||Not available||Not available|
Notable highest wins and nominees
The following nominees received at least 5 nominations:
The following winners received at least 2 awards:
The following nominees received at least 5 nominations:
The following winners received at least 3 awards (including non-competitive):
- List of film awards
- List of actors with Academy Award nominations
- List of superlative Academy Award winners and nominees
- List of Academy Award Winners for Best Picture, Director, Actor and Actress
- Sources conflict on if she actually said this. Deadline puts doubt on it, saying "'He reminds me of my Uncle Oscar,' she was reported to have said, while in the hearing of a 'nearby newspaper columnist' who picked up the anecdote and ran with it the next day." Variety and The Hollywood Reporter state with certainty that she made a claim to the Oscar nickname.
- Starting with the 2017 awards, a qualifying release for the Documentary Feature award can take place anywhere in the five boroughs of New York City. Previously, a New York City qualifying run could only take place in Manhattan. Since then, Brooklyn has also become a popular location.
- "AMPAS Drops '85th Academy Awards' – Now It's Just 'The Oscars'". TheWrap. February 19, 2013. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Feinberg, Scott (January 20, 2020). "Oscars: What the '1917' PGA Win and 'Parasite' SAG Win Mean for Best Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 11, 2023. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
- Rao, Sonia (April 16, 2021). "Why do the Oscars matter?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- Vega, Nicolas (March 26, 2022). "The Oscar statuette is the most prestigious prize in Hollywood—here's why it's only worth $1". CNBC. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
- "What are the Oscars and Baftas and what's the difference?". BBC. February 26, 2017. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
- Nichols, Chris (February 25, 2016). "Meet George Stanley, Sculptor of the Academy Award". Los Angeles Magazine. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "History of the Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010.
- Essex, Andrew (May 14, 1999). "The Birth of Oscar". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- Monush, Barry (February 9, 2012). "The Lure of Oscar: A Look at the Mightiest of All Award Shows, the Academy Awards". Paley Center for Media. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "The 1st Academy Awards | 1929". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on October 1, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "The Dunhill Hotel". Virtlo. Archived from the original on March 19, 2022. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
- "Court: 'Oscar' may be generic term in Italian". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016.
- "Court: Oscar may be generic term in Italian". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016.
- Harvey, Steve (March 29, 1993). "What You Won't See at Oscars On Cue: Behind Those Cameras on Oscar Night". Los Angeles Times. p. F1. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Disney hoping to win first Oscar for Best Animated Feature". New York Post. February 28, 2014. Archived from the original on April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- Farhi, Paul (February 10, 2020). "Parasite Makes Oscars History as the First Foreign-Language Film to Win Best Picture". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Barnes, Brooks (February 19, 2020). "Motion Picture Academy Museum Will Open in December". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Thompson, Anne (October 3, 2019). "The Academy Museum Finally Finds Its White Knight, and Could Have Had Him All Along". IndieWire. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- "The Academy and ABC Set April 25, 2021 as New Show Date for 93rd Oscars®". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. June 15, 2020. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- Madani, Doha (April 28, 2020). "Streaming films will be considered for Oscars for the first time". NBC. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- "Oscar Statuette". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. July 25, 2014. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "Oscar Statuette: Legacy". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "Oscar Statuette: Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "Eladio Gonzalez sands and buffs Oscar #3453". The Boston Globe. February 20, 2009. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- Babwin, Don (January 27, 2009). "Oscar 3453 is 'born' in Chicago factory". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. ("Lodi News-Sentinel". Archived from the original on September 12, 2015 – via Google News.)
- Alvarez, Alex (February 22, 2013). "Meet the Mexican Model Behind the Oscar Statue". ABC News. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Kojen, Natalie (February 16, 2016). "The Academy and Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry Revive the Art of Oscar Statuettes". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on February 18, 2016.
- Loviza, Amanda. "Foundry seeks tax breaks in move to Walden". recordonline.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Kilday, Gregg (February 16, 2016). "Oscar Statuette Gets a Face-Lift – This year's statuettes will be produced by Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry and will be hand-cast in bronze before receiving their 24-karat gold finish". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- Di Nunzio, Miriam (February 16, 2016). "Oscar statuettes, longtime creation of Chicago-based company, will now be made in New York". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016.
- Cieply, Michael (June 26, 2022). "So, Once And For All (We Hope), Bruce Davis Settles Why They Call It 'Oscar'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 26, 2022. Retrieved June 26, 2022.
- "Oscars: Who Came Up With the Name "Oscar" and More About the Statuette's History (Video)". The Hollywood Reporter. February 18, 2015. Archived from the original on October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Stine, Whitney; Davis, Bette (1974). Mother Goddam: The Story of the Career of Bette Davis. New York: Hawthorn Books. p. 74. ISBN 0-8015-5184-6. LCCN 73-10265. OCLC 1150862598.
- "The 6th Academy Awards Memorable Moments". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. August 27, 2014. Archived from the original on February 26, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
- McNary, Dave (April 7, 2017). "Oscars: New Rules Bar Multi-Part Documentaries Like 'O.J.: Made in America'". Variety. Archived from the original on April 15, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Kilday, Greg (February 9, 2010). "Oscar statues to include engraved names". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 12, 2015.
- Daly, Steve (February 28, 2014). "Governors Ball Secrets: Welcome to the 'Engraving Station,' Where Oscar Statuettes Get Personalized". Parade Magazine. Archived from the original on February 27, 2015.
- Rose, Lacey (February 28, 2005). "Psst! Wanna Buy An Oscar?". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "How Much Is an Oscar Statue Worth? Here Are 3 Estimates". Money. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Rothman, Heathcliff (February 12, 2006). "I'd Really Like to Thank My Pal at the Auction House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- Duke, Alan (December 12, 2011). "Orson Welles' 'Citizen Kane' Oscar for sale". CNN. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- Duke, Alan (December 21, 2011). "Orson Welles' 'Citizen Kane' Oscar brings $861,000". CNN. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- "7 Special Oscar Categories and Awards". mentalfloss.com. February 27, 2014. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "How Many Women Are Actually Voting for the Oscar Winners?". Archived from the original on April 17, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- Hutchinson, Sean (January 24, 2017). "How Are Oscar Nominees Chosen?". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018.
- Finlay, Jackie (March 3, 2006). "The men who are counting on Oscar". BBC News. Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "Meet the only two people in the world who already know all the Oscar winners | Market Watch". Archived from the original on February 27, 2017.
- "Academy Invites 115 to Become Members". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007.
- Horn, John (February 19, 2012). "Unmasking the Academy". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- Cieply, Michael (May 23, 2011). "Electronic Voting Comes to The Oscars (Finally)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014.
- "Rule Two: Eligibility" (PDF). 92nd Academy Awards of Merit: Rules. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Oscars Submission FAQ". Archived from the original on April 1, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- "The Academy and its Oscar Awards – Reminder List of Eligible Releases". Archived from the original on November 11, 2013.
- "Academy Award Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- "Awards Rules Approved for 89th Oscars®" (Press release). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. June 30, 2016. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Rule Eleven: Special Rules for the Documentary Awards" (PDF). 92nd Academy Awards of Merit: Rules. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Rule Nineteen: Special Rules for the Short Film Awards" (PDF). 92nd Academy Awards of Merit: Rules. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Pond, Steve (January 7, 2006). "Eight things every voter (and fan) should know about Oscar's decidedly unique nomination process". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- Young, John (January 27, 2011). "Oscars: The wacky way the Academy counts votes, and the results of our 'If You Were an Oscar Voter' poll". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- "Preferential Voting Extended to Best Picture on Final Ballot for 2009 Oscars". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Press release). August 31, 2009. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- VanDerWerff, Emily (February 22, 2015). "The Oscars' messed-up voting process, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
- "89TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS OF MERIT" (PDF). 2016. RULE TWENTY-TWO SPECIAL RULES FOR THE VISUAL EFFECTS AWARD. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 2, 2017.
Five productions shall be selected using reweighted range voting to become the nominations for final voting for the Visual Effects award.
- "RangeVoting.org – Reweighted Range Voting – a PR voting method that feels like range voting". rangevoting.org. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Marich, Robert (2013). Marketing to Moviegoers: A Handbook of Strategies and Tactics (3rd ed.). Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 235–48.
- Thompson, Anne (October 31, 2019). "Academy Opens Online 'Screening Room' for Oscar Contenders". IndieWire. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- Urban, Sasha (March 17, 2022). "How the Academy's Screening Room Helps Films Find a Global Audience Among Oscar Voters". Variety. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
- "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences: How the Academy Awards Shared Films With Oscar® Voters With Complete Security". Brightcove. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- Hammond, Pete (August 27, 2021). "Oscars: Academy Digital Screening Room Opens With Amazon And Netflix Contenders First To Vie For Voter Attention; DVDs Now Banned". Deadline. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- Welk, Brian (August 27, 2021). "Oscars Academy Postpones All In-Person Events and Screenings Until 2022". Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- "What was the longest Oscars telecast ever?". Newsday. February 19, 2016. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "ABC Signs Expansive New Agreement to Broadcast The Oscars, Hollywood's Biggest Entertainment Ceremony, Through 2028". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. August 31, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
- Fang, Marina (June 11, 2019). "The Oscars Are Experimenting with a Series Of Date Changes". HuffPost. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- O'Neil, Tom (July 12, 2010). "Emmys love for Oscars continues with 12 nominations". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Carter, Bill (April 8, 1998). "TV Notes; Moving Oscar Night". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Academy Awards will move to Sunday night". Reading Eagle. July 1, 1998. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015 – via Google News Archive.
- "Never Say Never: Academy Awards move to Sunday". The Item. March 19, 1999. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015 – via Google News Archive.
- Horn, John (October 5, 2010). "Academy looks to move 2012 Oscar ceremony up several weeks". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- "Academy Determines New Oscars Category Merits Further Study". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. September 5, 2018. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
The Board of Governors also voted to move up the date of the 92nd Oscars telecast to Sunday, February 9, 2020, from the previously announced February 23
- Lindsey, Robert (March 31, 1981). "Academy Awards Postponed to Tonight". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Child, Ben (March 10, 2010). "Farrah Fawcett:Oscars director apologises for 'In Memoriam' omission". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Cohen, Sandy (March 3, 2010). "Oscar's 'In Memoriam' segment is touching to watch, painful to make". USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 6, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Ehbar, Ned (February 28, 2014). "Did you know?" Metro. New York City. p. 18.
- "Halle Berry, Denzel Washington Win Big". Fox News. March 25, 2002. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Jones, Sam (February 16, 2010). "Cut ... all change at Oscars as winners are given just 45 seconds to say thanks". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011.
- "Can the 'thank-you scroll' save Oscar speeches?". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 28, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- "This Costume Designer Won Jimmy Kimmel's Jet Ski at the Oscars". Time. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- Bellini, Jason (February 21, 2019). "The Oscars Are Famously Long – Where Does the Time Go?" (Video). The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- "ABC's Oscar Contract Renegotiations: Who'll Get Creative Control?". Variety. March 2016. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- "Inside the Oscars Deal: What it Means for ABC and the Academy". Variety. September 2016. Archived from the original on September 1, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- James, Meg (February 23, 2008). "Academy's red carpet big stage for advertisers". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011.
- Bowles, Scott (January 26, 2005). "Oscars lack blockbuster to lure TV viewers". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 15, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006.
- Oppelaar, Justin (October 9, 2002). "Charts and Data: Top 100 TV Shows of All Time by Variety". Variety. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Brooks Barnes (March 13, 2023). "With Its Future at Stake, the Academy Tries to Fix the Oscars (Again)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 4, 2023. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
To reinvigorate the red carpet preshow, Oscars organizers hired members of the Met Gala creative team.
- Levin, Gary (March 7, 2006). "Low Ratings Crash Party". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- "Oscar ratings worst ever". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014.
- Golum, Rob (February 10, 2020). "Oscars Draw Record Low Audience With 23.6 Million Viewers". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Patten, Dominic (April 27, 2021). "Oscar Viewership Rises To 10.4M In Final Numbers; Remains Least Watched & Lowest Rated Academy Awards Ever – Update". Deadline. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Smith, Gerry (April 26, 2021). "Oscars Audience Collapses in Latest Setback for Awards Shows". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Frank Pallotta (March 28, 2022). "Oscar ratings surge after historic lows last year". CNN. Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- "Oscar Viewership Up 12% To 18.7 Million". Yahoo Entertainment. March 13, 2023. Archived from the original on March 13, 2023. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
- "Academy Awards Collection". Academy Film Archive. September 4, 2014. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- "Oscars Award Venues". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on December 12, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "Oscars' home renamed Dolby Theatre". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "Oscars Won't Televise All Awards, Adds Popular Film Category". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "Academy Reverses Decision, Will Air All Awards at the 2019 Oscars". Time. Archived from the original on February 17, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
- Conradt, Stacy (February 18, 2010). "The Quick 10: 10 Bygone (or rejected) Academy Awards Categories". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Kilday, Gregg (September 6, 2018). "Academy Postponing New Popular Oscar Category". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- "It's Time to Create an Oscar For Stunt Coordinators". Film School Rejects. April 1, 2012. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
- "Jack Gill Interview". Action Fest. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on April 28, 2013.
- Handel, Jonathan (June 15, 2011). "Academy Votes Against Creating Oscar Category for Stunt Coordinators". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013.
- Hiltzik, Michael (August 4, 2005). "One stunt they've been unable to pull off". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- Mendelson, Scott (April 7, 2023). "Oscars for Stunts? Filmmakers and Insiders Say It's Overdue". The Wrap.
- Friedkin, William (Director) (February 24, 2009). Director William Friedkin at the Hudson Union Society. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "Academy Awards – The Oscars". Archived from the original on January 20, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- Kilday, Gregg (December 20, 2012). "Oscar's Dirty Tricks: Inside the Whisper Campaign Machine (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Smith, Kyle. "Have the Oscars jumped the shark?". New York Post. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "In Hollywood, diversity tends to ignore the disabled". Los Angeles Times. June 15, 2016. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- "Oscars diversity debate must include learning disability". The Guardian. February 24, 2017. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- "Oscars 2016: Lack of Diversity Has Historically Been a Problem". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Berman, Eliza. "This Chart Proves the Oscars Have a Serious Diversity Problem". Time. Archived from the original on April 30, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
- "Casting White People in Asian Roles Goes Back Centuries". Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Moreno, Carolina (February 24, 2017). "11 Times The Oscars Honored White Actors For Playing People Of Color". HuffPost. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Vliet, Hannah (December 1, 2021). "White Saviors Get Gold Trophies: Colorblind Racism and Film Award Culture". Film Matters. 12 (3): 140–151. doi:10.1386/fm_00182_1. ISSN 2042-1869. S2CID 247260533. Archived from the original on March 23, 2023. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
- Sims, David (January 19, 2016). "Can a Boycott Change the Oscars?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Kreps, Daniel (January 23, 2016). "Academy Promises 'Historic' Changes to Diversify Membership". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Lacina, Bethany; Hecker, Ryan (May 16, 2021). "The Academy Awards Will Have New Diversity Rules to Qualify for an Oscar. But There's a Huge Loophole". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 23, 2022. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- Buchanan, Kyle (May 16, 2021). "The Oscars' New Diversity Rules Are Sweeping but Safe". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 10, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
- Valent, Jessica (February 15, 2019). "Are 'Roma's Oscar Nominations a Win for Diversity or a Different Shade of Whiteness in Hollywood?". Remezcla. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- McNamara, Mary (January 15, 2016). "Oscars 2016: It's time for Hollywood to stop defining great drama as white men battling adversity". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
- Eng, Joyce (January 10, 2023). "Michelle Yeoh: Second Asian comedy/musical actress Golden Globe winner". GoldDerby. Archived from the original on January 11, 2023. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
- Hudson, Dale (2022). "#OscarMustFall: On Refusing to Give Power to Unjust Definitions of "Merit"". Jump Cut. Archived from the original on September 19, 2022. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
- "How Lead and Supporting Actor Oscars Are Determined". Archived from the original on December 9, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2023.
- "The Oscars need to fix the Supporting Actor category". Polygon. April 25, 2021. Archived from the original on October 21, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2023.
- "What's the worst Best Actor choice of all time?". Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- Levy, Emanuel (2003). All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Burns & Oates. ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6.
- Thompson, Anna (February 28, 2019). "The Spielberg vs. Netflix Battle Could Mean Collateral Damage for Indies at the Oscars". IndieWire. Archived from the original on March 20, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Johnson, Ted (April 2, 2019). "Justice Department Warns Academy Over Potential Oscar Rule Changes Threatening Netflix". Variety. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Respers France, Lisa (April 24, 2019). "Academy doesn't change streaming eligibility for Oscars". CNN. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Bellamy, Claretta (January 7, 2022). "How Jada Pinkett Smith is uplifting Black women with alopecia". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- "Watch the uncensored moment Will Smith smacks Chris Rock on stage at the Oscars, drops F-bomb". Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022 – via YouTube.
- "Will Smith slaps Chris Rock at the Oscars after joke at wife Jada Pinkett Smith's expense | ABC7". Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022 – via YouTube.
- Respers, Lisa France; Elam, Stephanie (March 27, 2022). "Will Smith appeared to strike Chris Rock on Oscars telecast". CNN. Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Gajewski, Ryan (March 28, 2022). "Will Smith Tearfully Apologizes to Academy After Chris Rock Oscars Slap". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Arkin, Daniel (March 27, 2022). "Will Smith appeared to hit Chris Rock at the Oscars over joke about Jada Pinkett Smith". NBC News. Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Whelan, Robbie (March 27, 2022). "Will Smith Takes to Oscar Stage, Appears to Strike Chris Rock After Joke About Jada Pinkett Smith". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Yeo, Amanda (March 28, 2022). "Chris Rock won't press charges against Will Smith for that Oscars slap". Mashable. Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
- Davis, Clayton (April 8, 2022). "Academy Bans Will Smith From Oscars for 10 Years". Variety. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
- "The Oscars Did You Know?". Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
- "George C Scott: The man who refused an Oscar". BBC News. September 23, 1999. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014.
- "Show Business: Meat Parade". Time. March 8, 1971. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008.
- "Fast Facts – Did You Know?". Biography.com. May 16, 1929. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- Oscars (October 2, 2008). "Marlon Brando's Oscar win for " The Godfather"". Archived from the original on February 17, 2011. Retrieved February 25, 2019 – via YouTube.
- Kreps, Daniel (October 22, 2022). "Sacheen Littlefeather Lied About Native American Ancestry, Sisters Claim". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 23, 2022. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
- "Sacheen Littlefeather's sisters say her Native identity was fraudulent". October 22, 2022. Archived from the original on October 22, 2022. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
- October 22, Emlyn Travis; EDT, 2022 at 05:06 PM. "Oscars protester Sacheen Littlefeather was a 'fraud,' sisters say". EW.com. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
- "Sacheen Littlefather's sisters say she was not Native American. The actress had disputed similar claims before". www.cbsnews.com. October 24, 2022. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
- Gilio-Whitaker, Dina (October 28, 2022). "Sacheen Littlefeather and ethnic fraud – why the truth is crucial, even it it[sic] means losing an American Indian hero". The Conversation. Archived from the original on March 12, 2023. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
- Obias, Rudie (February 23, 2019). "9 Oscar Nominations That Were Revoked". mentalfloss.com. Mental Floss. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- Valenti, Catherine. "No Oscar? How About a Gift Bag?". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Peterson, Kim. "Oscars' gift bag has $80,000 worth of swag". CBS News. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Staff. "IRS Statement on Oscar Goodie Bags". IRS.gov. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Valiente, Alexa. "What Surprising Freebies Are Inside the 2014 Oscar Nominees' Gift Bags". ABC News. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Bacardi, Francesca. "Oscar 'Losers' Become Winners with Distinctive Assets Gift Bags". Variety. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Cuccinello, Hayley. "Inside The $225,000 Oscars 2020 Gift Bag: From An Antarctic Cruise To A Gold Vape Pen To A Smart Bra". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- Stabile, Angelica. "The $225,000 Oscars 2020 gift bag: Here's what's inside". Yahoo. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Staff. "Adam & Eve Had Secret Room Gifting Suite for Oscars' Celebs". Adult Video News. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Bibel, Sara (February 24, 2012). "With No Blockbusters Up For Best Picture, Expect 'Academy Awards' Viewership To Fall; Ratings History + Your Guess For This Year (Poll)". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "Kantar Media Reports on the Advertising Vitality of the Academy Awards – Historical Advertising Data Showcases Ad Pricing Trends and Top Marketers; Super Bowl Overlap Increases as Sales Rise". Kantar Media. February 13, 2013. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- Steinberg, Brian (March 10, 2023). "Disney Softens Prices for Oscars Commercials". Variety. Archived from the original on March 13, 2023. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
- Lynch, Jason (March 23, 2022). "Disney Sells Out Oscars Ad Inventory Despite Ratings Plummet". AdWeek. Archived from the original on March 30, 2022. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
- "Sunday Final Ratings: Oscars Adjusted Up". TVbytheNumbers. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Ozanian, Mike. "The Oscars Beat The Super Bowl in Advertising Premium". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Kissell, Rick (March 3, 2014). "Oscars on ABC Draw Largest Audience in 10 Years". Variety. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Steinberg, Brian (March 3, 2014). "Oscar Ad Prices Hit All-Time High as ABC Sells Out 2014 Telecast (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Bibel, Sara (December 12, 2013). "Tops of 2013: TV and Social Media". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on April 25, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Kissell, Rick (February 27, 2012). "Crystal, social media fuel Oscar ratings". Variety. PMC. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Brokaw, Lauren (2010). "Wanna see an Academy Awards invite? We got it along with all the major annual events surrounding the Oscars". Los Angeles: The Daily Truffle.
- Cotte, Oliver (2007). Secrets of Oscar-winning animation: Behind the scenes of 13 classic short animations. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-52070-4.
- Fischer, Erika J (1988). The inauguration of "Oscar": sketches and documents from the early years of the Hollywood Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and the Academy Awards, 1927–1930. Munich: K. G. Saur Verlag. ISBN 978-3-598-10753-5. OCLC 925086635.
- Kinn, Gail; Piazza, Jim (2002). The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57912-240-9.
- Levy, Emanuel (2003). All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Burns & Oates. ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6.
- Wright, Jon (2007). The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood's Biggest Night. Thomas Publishing, Inc.