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White-crested laughingthrush (Garrulax leucolophus)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Saurischia
Clade: Theropoda
Clade: Avialae
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Leiothrichidae
Genus: Garrulax
Lesson, 1831
Type species
Garrulax belangeri[1]
Lesson, 1831

See text

  • Leucodioptron Bonaparte, 1854
  • Stactocichla Sharpe, 1883
  • Melanocichla Sharpe, 1883
  • Rhinocichla Sharpe, 1883
  • Dryonastes Sharpe, 1883

Garrulax is a genus of passerine birds in the laughingthrush family Leiothrichidae.


The genus Garrulax was erected by the French naturalist René Lesson in 1831.[2] The type species was designated in 1961 as the rufous-fronted laughingthrush (Garrulax rufifrons).[3]

The genus previously included more species. Following the publication of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study in 2018, Garrulax was split up and species were moved to the resurrected genera Ianthocincla and Pterorhinus.[4][5]

Garrulax species are heavily traded as songbirds. A survey of eight bird markets in Indonesia, carried out in 2014–2015, found 615 laughingthrushes of nine species openly for sale.[6] Much of the trade in these species in Indonesia is illegal and is pushing a number of these species towards extinction.[7] The Sumatran Laughingthrush, for example, is in serious decline due to ongoing and uncontrolled illegal trade in bird markets on the islands of Java and Sumatra, and is increasingly found in international trade, though in lower numbers.[8]


The genus contains the following 14 species:[5]

Image Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Lesser necklaced laughingthrush Garrulax monileger Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Rufous-fronted laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons Java
White-crested laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
Black-hooded laughingthrush Garrulax milleti Laos and Vietnam.
Sumatran laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor Sumatra
White-necked laughingthrush Garrulax strepitans Yunnan, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand.
Cambodian laughingthrush Garrulax ferrarius Cambodia.
Grey laughingthrush Garrulax maesi southern China
Rufous-cheeked laughingthrush Garrulax castanotis China, Laos, and Vietnam.
Sunda laughingthrush Garrulax palliatus Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
Chinese hwamei Garrulax canorus south-eastern and central China and in northern and central Vietnam and Laos.
Taiwan hwamei Garrulax taewanus Taiwan
Spot-breasted laughingthrush Garrulax merulinus Yunnan, Northeast India, Laos, Myanmar, north-west Thailand, and northern Vietnam.
Orange-breasted laughingthrush Garrulax annamensis Vietnam


  1. ^ "Leiothrichidae". The Trust for Avian Systematics. Retrieved 2023-07-15.
  2. ^ Lesson, René (1831). Traité d'Ornithologie, ou Tableau Méthodique (in French). Vol. 1. Paris: F.G. Levrault. p. 647.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ Cibois, A.; Gelang, M.; Alström, P.; Pasquet, E.; Fjeldså, J.; Ericson, P.G.P.; Olsson, U. (2018). "Comprehensive phylogeny of the laughingthrushes and allies (Aves, Leiothrichidae) and a proposal for a revised taxonomy". Zoologica Scripta. 47 (4): 428–440. doi:10.1111/zsc.12296. S2CID 51883434.
  5. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Laughingthrushes and allies". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  6. ^ Shepherd, Chris R.; Eaton, James A.; Chng, Serene C. L. (2016). "Nothing to laugh about – the ongoing illegal trade in laughingthrushes (Garrulax species) in the bird markets of Java, Indonesia". Bird Conservation International. 26 (4): 524–530. doi:10.1017/S0959270916000320. ISSN 0959-2709. S2CID 88722096.
  7. ^ Shepherd, Chris R. (2010). "Observations on trade in laughingthrushes ( Garrulax spp.) in North Sumatra, Indonesia". Bird Conservation International. 21 (1): 86–91. doi:10.1017/S0959270910000274. ISSN 0959-2709.
  8. ^ Heinrich, Sarah; Leupen, Boyd T.C.; Bruslund, Simon; Owen, Andrew; Shepherd, Chris R. (2021). "A case for better international protection of the Sumatran Laughingthrush (Garrulax bicolor)". Global Ecology and Conservation. 25: e01414. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01414. S2CID 234330951.
  • Collar, N. J. & Robson C. 2007. Family Timaliidae (Babblers) pp. 70 – 291 in; del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.