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Different cowries.jpg
A group of shells of species of cowries, family Cypraeidae, anterior ends towards the top of the image.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Littorinimorpha
Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975

See text

Littorinimorpha is a large order of snails,[1] gastropods, consisting primarily of sea snails (marine species), but also including some freshwater snails (aquatic species) and land snails (terrestrial species).[2]

Previously, the Linnaean taxonomy used in the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Ponder & Lindberg (1997) ranked like this: subclass Orthogastropoda, superorder Caenogastropoda, order Sorbeoconcha, suborder Hypsogastropoda, infraorder Littorinimorpha.

The order Littorinimorpha contains many gastropoda families that were formerly placed in the order Mesogastropoda, as introduced by J. Thiele in his work from 1921.[3] Evidence for this group being monophyletic is scanty. In 2003, E. E. Strong[4] suggested using only Neogastropoda as a clade within the clade Hypsogastropoda, and to include the unresolved superfamilies of the Hypsogastropoda within the Littorinimorpha.[5]

Superfamilies and families[edit]

The superfamilies grouped in this clade include a few families that are well-known based on their shells:

(Extinct taxa indicated by a dagger, †.)

Families brought into synonymy
  • Adeorbidae Monterosato, 1884: synonym of Tornidae Sacco, 1896 (1884)
  • Paludestrinidae Newton, 1891 accepted as Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865
  • Pyrgulidae Brusina, 1882 (1869) accepted as Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865
  • Vitrinellidae Bush, 1897 accepted as Tornidae Sacco, 1896 (1884)


  1. ^ WoRMS
  2. ^ Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (Ed.); Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdes A. & Warén A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 397 pp.
  3. ^ Thiele, J., 1929-1935. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. 2 vols. 1154 p., 584 figs
  4. ^ Strong, E.E. (2003). "Refining molluscan characters : morphology, character coding and a phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137 (4): 447–554. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00058.x.
  5. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Littorinimorpha. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2010-06-06