This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
|Connects to||Motherboard via one of:
Display via one of:
A graphics card (also called a video card, display card, graphics adapter, VGA card/VGA, video adapter, display adapter, or colloquially GPU) is a computer expansion card that generates a feed of graphics output to a display device such as a monitor. Graphics cards are sometimes called discrete or dedicated graphics cards to emphasize their distinction to integrated graphics processor on the motherboard or the CPU. A graphics processing unit (GPU) that performs the necessary computations is the main component in a graphics card, but the acronym "GPU" is sometimes also used to refer to the graphics card as a whole.
Most graphics cards are not limited to simple display output. The graphics processing unit can be used for additional processing, which reduces the load from the central processing unit. Additionally, computing platforms such as OpenCL and CUDA allow using graphics cards for general-purpose computing. Applications of general-purpose computing on graphics cards include AI training, cryptocurrency mining, and molecular simulation.
Usually, a graphics card comes in the form of a printed circuit board (expansion board) which are to be inserted into an expansion slot. Others may have dedicated enclosures, and they are connected to the computer via a docking station or a cable. These are known as external GPUs (eGPUs).
Graphics cards are often preferred over integrated graphics for increased performance.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2022)
Graphics cards historically supported different computer display standards as they evolved. For the IBM PC compatibles, common early standards were MDA, CGA, Hercules, EGA and VGA.
In the late 1980s the like of Radius produced graphics cards for the Apple Macintosh II with discrete 2D QuickDraw capabilities.
3dfx Interactive was one of the first companies to develop a consumer-facing GPU with 3D acceleration (with the Voodoo series) and the first to develop a graphical chipset dedicated to 3D, but without 2D support (which therefore required the presence of a 2D card to work).
NVIDIA RIVA 128 was one of the first consumer-facing GPU integrated 3D processing unit and 2D processing unit on a chip.
Nowadays,[when?] the majority of modern graphics cards are built with either AMD-sourced or Nvidia-sourced graphics chips. Most graphics cards offer various functions such as 3D rendering, 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, and the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitor). Graphics cards also have sound card capabilities to output sound along with video output for connected TVs or monitors with integrated speakers.
Within the industry, graphics cards are sometimes called graphics add-in-boards, abbreviated as AIBs, with the word "graphics" usually omitted.
Discrete vs integrated graphics
As an alternative to the use of a graphics card, video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard, CPU, or a system-on-chip as integrated graphics. Motherboard-based implementations are sometimes called "on-board video". Some motherboards support using both integrated graphics and the graphics card simultaneously to feed separate displays. The main advantages of integrated graphics are: a low cost, compactness, simplicity, and low energy consumption. Integrated graphics often has less performance than a graphics card because the graphics processing unit inside integrated graphics needs to share system resources with the CPU. On the other hand, a graphics card has a separate random access memory (RAM), cooling system, and dedicated power regulators. A graphics card can offload work and reduce memory-bus-contention from the CPU and system RAM, therefore the overall performance for a computer could improve in addition to increased performance in graphics processing. Such improvements to performance can be seen in video gaming, 3D animation, and video editing.
Both AMD and Intel have introduced CPUs and motherboard chipsets which support the integration of a GPU into the same die as the CPU. AMD advertises CPUs with integrated graphics under the trademark Accelerated Processing Unit (APU), while Intel brands similar technology under "Intel Graphics Technology".
As the processing power of graphics cards increased, so did their demand for electrical power. Current high-performance graphics cards tend to consume large amounts of power. For example, the thermal design power (TDP) for the GeForce Titan RTX is 280 watts. When tested with video games, the GeForce RTX 2080 Ti Founder's Edition averaged 300 watts of power consumption. While CPU and power supply manufacturers have recently aimed toward higher efficiency, power demands of graphics cards continued to rise, with the largest power consumption of any individual part in a computer. Although power supplies have also increased their power output, the bottleneck occurs in the PCI-Express connection, which is limited to supplying 75 watts.
Modern graphics cards with a power consumption of over 75 watts usually include a combination of six-pin (75 W) or eight-pin (150 W) sockets that connect directly to the power supply. Providing adequate cooling becomes a challenge in such computers. Computers with multiple graphics cards may require power supplies over 750 watts. Heat extraction becomes a major design consideration for computers with two or more high-end graphics cards.
As of the Nvidia GeForce RTX 30 series, Ampere architecture, a custom flashed RTX 3090 named "Hall of Fame" has been recorded to reach a peak power draw as high as 630 watts. A standard RTX 3090 can peak at up to 450 watts. The RTX 3080 can reach up to 350 watts, while a 3070 can reach a similar, if not slightly lower peak power draw. Ampere cards are the first cards to feature a pass through cooler design to dissipate as much heat as possible, especially with large power consumptions.
Graphics cards for desktop computers have different size profiles, which allows graphics cards to be added to smaller-sized computers. Some graphics cards are not of the usual size, and are named as "low profile". Graphics card profiles are based on height only, with low-profile cards taking up less than the height of a PCIe slot, some can be as low as "half-height". Length and thickness can vary greatly, with high-end cards usually occupying two or three expansion slots, and with modern high-end graphics cards such as the RTX 4090 exceeding 300mm in length. A lower profile card is preferred when trying to fit multiple cards or if graphics cards run into clearance issues with other motherboard components like the DIMM or PCIE slots. This can be fixed with a larger computer case such as mid-tower or full tower. Full towers are usually able to fit larger motherboards in sizes like ATX and micro ATX.
Some graphics cards can be linked together to allow scaling graphics processing across multiple cards. This is done using either the PCIe bus on the motherboard or, more commonly, a data bridge. Usually, the cards must be of the same model to be linked, and most low end cards are not able to be linked in this way. AMD and Nvidia both have proprietary scaling methods, CrossFireX for AMD, and SLI (since the Turing generation, superseded by NVLink) for Nvidia. Cards from different chip-set manufacturers or architectures cannot be used together for multi-card scaling. If graphics cards have different sizes of memory, the lowest value will be used, with the higher values disregarded. Currently, scaling on consumer-grade cards can be done using up to four cards. The use of four cards requires a large motherboard with a proper configuration. Nvidia's GeForce GTX 590 graphics card can be configured in a four-card configuration. As stated above, users will want to stick to cards with the same performances for optimal use. Motherboards including ASUS Maximus 3 Extreme and Gigabyte GA EX58 Extreme are certified to work with this configuration. A large power supply is necessary to run the cards in SLI or CrossFireX. Power demands must be known before a proper supply is installed. For the four card configuration, a 1000+ watt supply is needed. With any relatively powerful graphics card, thermal management cannot be ignored. Graphics cards require well-vented chassis and good thermal solutions. Air or water cooling are usually required, though low end GPUs can use passive cooling. Larger configurations use water solutions or immersion cooling to achieve proper performance without thermal throttling.
SLI and Crossfire have become increasingly uncommon as most games do not fully utilize multiple GPUs, due to the fact that most users cannot afford them. Multiple GPUs are still used on supercomputers (like in Summit), on workstations to accelerate video and 3D rendering, visual effects, for simulations, and in training artificial intelligence.
3D graphics APIs
A graphics driver usually supports one or multiple cards by the same vendor and has to be written for a specific operating system. Additionally, the operating system or an extra software package may provide certain programming APIs for applications to perform 3D rendering.
|iOS and iPadOS||MoltenVK||No||No||Apple||No||Apple||Apple|
|Sailfish OS||In development||No||No||No||No||Yes||—|
|Orbis OS (PlayStation)||No||No||Yes||No||No||No||No|
Some GPUs are designed with specific usage in mind:
- Cloud gaming
- Cloud Workstation
- Artificial Intelligence Cloud
- Automated/Driverless car
As of 2016, the primary suppliers of the GPUs (graphics chips or chipsets) used in graphics cards are AMD and Nvidia. In the third quarter of 2013, AMD had a 35.5% market share while Nvidia had 64.5%, according to Jon Peddie Research. In economics, this industry structure is termed a duopoly. AMD and Nvidia also build and sell graphics cards, which are termed graphics add-in-boards (AIBs) in the industry. (See Comparison of Nvidia graphics processing units and Comparison of AMD graphics processing units.) In addition to marketing their own graphics cards, AMD and Nvidia sell their GPUs to authorized AIB suppliers, which AMD and Nvidia refer to as "partners". The fact that Nvidia and AMD compete directly with their customer/partners complicates relationships in the industry. AMD and Intel being direct competitors in the CPU industry is also noteworthy, since AMD-based graphics cards may be used in computers with Intel CPUs. Intel's integrated graphics may weaken AMD, in which the latter derives a significant portion of its revenue from its APUs. As of the second quarter of 2013, there were 52 AIB suppliers. These AIB suppliers may market graphics cards under their own brands, produce graphics cards for private label brands, or produce graphics cards for computer manufacturers. Some AIB suppliers such as MSI build both AMD-based and Nvidia-based graphics cards. Others, such as EVGA, build only Nvidia-based graphics cards, while XFX, now builds only AMD-based graphics cards. Several AIB suppliers are also motherboard suppliers. Most of the largest AIB suppliers are based in Taiwan and they include ASUS, MSI, GIGABYTE, and Palit. Hong Kong–based AIB manufacturers include Sapphire and Zotac. Sapphire and Zotac also sell graphics cards exclusively for AMD and Nvidia GPUs respectively. The United States is also home to EVGA, and XFX which sell graphics cards exclusively for Nvidia and AMD respectively.
Graphics card shipments peaked at a total of 114 million in 1999. By contrast, they totaled 14.5 million units in the third quarter of 2013, a 17% fall from Q3 2012 levels. Shipments reached an annual total of 44 million in 2015. The sales of graphics cards have trended downward due to improvements in integrated graphics technologies; high-end, CPU-integrated graphics can provide competitive performance with low-end graphics cards. At the same time, graphics card sales have grown within the high-end segment, as manufacturers have shifted their focus to prioritize the gaming and enthusiast market.
Beyond the gaming and multimedia segments, graphics cards have been increasingly used for general-purpose computing, such as big data processing. The growth of cryptocurrency has placed a severely high demand on high-end graphics cards, especially in large quantities, due to their advantages in the process of cryptocurrency mining. In January 2018, mid- to high-end graphics cards experienced a major surge in price, with many retailers having stock shortages due to the significant demand among this market. Graphics card companies released mining-specific cards designed to run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and without video output ports. The graphics card industry took a setback due to the 2020–21 chip shortage.
A modern graphics card consists of a printed circuit board on which the components are mounted. These include:
Graphics processing unit
A graphics processing unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processing unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display. Because of the large degree of programmable computational complexity for such a task, a modern graphics card is also a computer unto itself.
A heat sink is mounted on most modern graphics cards. A heat sink spreads out the heat produced by the graphics processing unit evenly throughout the heat sink and unit itself. The heat sink commonly has a fan mounted to cool the heat sink and the graphics processing unit. Not all cards have heat sinks, for example, some cards are liquid-cooled and instead have a water block; additionally, cards from the 1980s and early 1990s did not produce much heat, and did not require heat sinks. Most modern graphics cards need proper thermal solutions. They can be water-cooled or through heat sinks with additional connected heat pipes usually made of copper for the best thermal transfer.
The video BIOS or firmware contains a minimal program for the initial set up and control of the graphics card. It may contain information on the memory and memory timing, operating speeds and voltages of the graphics processor, and other details which can sometimes be changed.
Modern Video BIOSes do not support full functionalities of graphics cards; they are only sufficient to identify and initialize the card to display one of a few frame buffer or text display modes. It does not support YUV to RGB translation, video scaling, pixel copying, compositing or any of the multitude of other 2D and 3D features of the graphics card, which must be accessed by software drivers.
|Type||Memory clock rate (MHz)||Bandwidth (GB/s)|
The memory capacity of most modern graphics cards ranges from 2 to 24 GB. But with up to 32 GB as of the last 2010s, the applications for graphics use are becoming more powerful and widespread. Since video memory needs to be accessed by the GPU and the display circuitry, it often uses special high-speed or multi-port memory, such as VRAM, WRAM, SGRAM, etc. Around 2003, the video memory was typically based on DDR technology. During and after that year, manufacturers moved towards DDR2, GDDR3, GDDR4, GDDR5, GDDR5X, and GDDR6. The effective memory clock rate in modern cards is generally between 2 and 15 GHz.
Video memory may be used for storing other data as well as the screen image, such as the Z-buffer, which manages the depth coordinates in 3D graphics, textures, vertex buffers, and compiled shader programs.
The RAMDAC, or random-access-memory digital-to-analog converter, converts digital signals to analog signals for use by a computer display that uses analog inputs such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. The RAMDAC is a kind of RAM chip that regulates the functioning of the graphics card. Depending on the number of bits used and the RAMDAC-data-transfer rate, the converter will be able to support different computer-display refresh rates. With CRT displays, it is best to work over 75 Hz and never under 60 Hz, to minimize flicker. (This is not a problem with LCD displays, as they have little to no flicker.) Due to the growing popularity of digital computer displays and the integration of the RAMDAC onto the GPU die, it has mostly disappeared as a discrete component. All current LCD/plasma monitors and TVs and projectors with only digital connections work in the digital domain and do not require a RAMDAC for those connections. There are displays that feature analog inputs (VGA, component, SCART, etc.) only. These require a RAMDAC, but they reconvert the analog signal back to digital before they can display it, with the unavoidable loss of quality stemming from this digital-to-analog-to-digital conversion. With the VGA standard being phased out in favor of digital formats, RAMDACs have started to disappear from graphics cards.
The most common connection systems between the graphics card and the computer display are:
Video Graphics Array (VGA) (DE-15)
Also known as D-sub, VGA is an analog-based standard adopted in the late 1980s designed for CRT displays, also called VGA connector. Today, the VGA analog interface is used for high definition video resolutions including 1080p and higher. Some problems of this standard are electrical noise, image distortion and sampling error in evaluating pixels. While the VGA transmission bandwidth is high enough to support even higher resolution playback, the picture quality can degrade depending on cable quality and length. The extent of quality difference depends on the individual's eyesight and the display; when using a DVI or HDMI connection, especially on larger sized LCD/LED monitors or TVs, quality degradation, if present, is prominently visible. Blu-ray playback at 1080p is possible via the VGA analog interface, if Image Constraint Token (ICT) is not enabled on the Blu-ray disc.
Digital Visual Interface (DVI)
Digital Visual Interface is a digital-based standard designed for displays such as flat-panel displays (LCDs, plasma screens, wide high-definition television displays) and video projectors. In some rare cases, high-end CRT monitors also use DVI. It avoids image distortion and electrical noise, corresponding each pixel from the computer to a display pixel, using its native resolution. It is worth noting that most manufacturers include a DVI-I connector, allowing (via simple adapter) standard RGB signal output to an old CRT or LCD monitor with VGA input.
Video-in video-out (VIVO) for S-Video, composite video and component video
These connectors are included to allow connection with televisions, DVD players, video recorders and video game consoles. They often come in two 10-pin mini-DIN connector variations, and the VIVO splitter cable generally comes with either 4 connectors (S-Video in and out plus composite video in and out), or 6 connectors (S-Video in and out plus component PB out plus component PR out + component Y out [also composite out] plus composite in).
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
HDMI is a compact audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed/uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant device ("the source device") to a compatible digital audio device, computer monitor, video projector, or digital television. HDMI is a digital replacement for existing analog video standards. HDMI supports copy protection through HDCP.
DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to transmit audio, USB, and other forms of data. The VESA specification is royalty-free. VESA designed it to replace VGA, DVI, and LVDS. Backward compatibility to VGA and DVI by using adapter dongles enables consumers to use DisplayPort fitted video sources without replacing existing display devices. Although DisplayPort has a greater throughput of the same functionality as HDMI, it is expected to complement the interface, not replace it.
Other types of connection systems
|Composite video||For display on analog systems with SD resolutions (PAL or NTSC) the RCA connector output can be used. The single pin connector carries all resolution, brightness and color information, making it the lowest quality dedicated video connection. Depending on the card the SECAM color system might be supported, along with non-standard modes like PAL-60 or NTSC50.|
|Component video||It uses three cables, each with RCA connector (YCBCR for digital component, or YPBPR for analog component); it is used in older projectors, video-game consoles, and DVD players. It can carry SDTV 480i/576i and EDTV 480p/576p resolutions, and HDTV resolutions 720p and 1080i, but not 1080p due to industry concerns about copy protection. Its graphics quality is equivalent to HDMI for the resolutions it carries, but for best performance for Blu-ray, other 1080p sources like PPV, or 4K Ultra HD, a digital display connector is required.|
|DB13W3||An analog standard once used by Sun Microsystems, SGI and IBM.|
|DMS-59||A connector that provides a DVI or VGA output on a single connector.|
|DE-9||The historical connector used by EGA and CGA graphic cards is a female nine-pin D-subminiature (DE-9). The signal standard and pinout are backward-compatible with CGA, allowing EGA monitors to be used on CGA cards and vice versa.|
Chronologically, connection systems between graphics card and motherboard were, mainly:
- S-100 bus: Designed in 1974 as a part of the Altair 8800, it is the first industry-standard bus for the microcomputer industry.
- ISA: Introduced in 1981 by IBM, it became dominant in the marketplace in the 1980s. It is an 8- or 16-bit bus clocked at 8 MHz.
- NuBus: Used in Macintosh II, it is a 32-bit bus with an average bandwidth of 10 to 20 MB/s.
- MCA: Introduced in 1987 by IBM it is a 32-bit bus clocked at 10 MHz.
- EISA: Released in 1988 to compete with IBM's MCA, it was compatible with the earlier ISA bus. It is a 32-bit bus clocked at 8.33 MHz.
- VLB: An extension of ISA, it is a 32-bit bus clocked at 33 MHz. Also referred to as VESA.
- PCI: Replaced the EISA, ISA, MCA and VESA buses from 1993 onwards. PCI allowed dynamic connectivity between devices, avoiding the manual adjustments required with jumpers. It is a 32-bit bus clocked 33 MHz.
- UPA: An interconnect bus architecture introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1995. It is a 64-bit bus clocked at 67 or 83 MHz.
- USB: Although mostly used for miscellaneous devices, such as secondary storage devices or peripherals and toys, USB displays and display adapters exist. It was first used in 1996.
- AGP: First used in 1997, it is a dedicated-to-graphics bus. It is a 32-bit bus clocked at 66 MHz.
- PCI-X: An extension of the PCI bus, it was introduced in 1998. It improves upon PCI by extending the width of bus to 64 bits and the clock frequency to up to 133 MHz.
- PCI Express: Abbreviated as PCIe, it is a point-to-point interface released in 2004. In 2006, it provided a data-transfer rate that is double of AGP. It should not be confused with PCI-X, an enhanced version of the original PCI specification. This is standard for most modern graphics cards.
The following table is a comparison between features of some interfaces listed above.
|Bus||Width (bits)||Clock rate (MHz)||Bandwidth (MB/s)||Style|
|PCIe x1||1||2500 / 5000||250 / 500||Serial|
|PCIe x4||1 × 4||2500 / 5000||1000 / 2000||Serial|
|PCIe x8||1 × 8||2500 / 5000||2000 / 4000||Serial|
|PCIe x16||1 × 16||2500 / 5000||4000 / 8000||Serial|
|PCIe ×1 2.0||1||500 / 1000||Serial|
|PCIe ×4 2.0||1 × 4||2000 / 4000||Serial|
|PCIe ×8 2.0||1 × 8||4000 / 8000||Serial|
|PCIe ×16 2.0||1 × 16||5000 / 10000||8000 / 16000||Serial|
|PCIe ×1 3.0||1||1000 / 2000||Serial|
|PCIe ×4 3.0||1 × 4||4000 / 8000||Serial|
|PCIe ×8 3.0||1 × 8||8000 / 16000||Serial|
|PCIe ×16 3.0||1 × 16||16000 / 32000||Serial|
|PCIe ×1 4.0||1||2000 / 4000||Serial|
|PCIe ×4 4.0||1 × 4||8000 / 16000||Serial|
|PCIe ×8 4.0||1 × 8||16000 / 32000||Serial|
|PCIe ×16 4.0||1 × 16||32000 / 64000||Serial|
|PCIe ×1 5.0||1||4000 / 8000||Serial|
|PCIe ×4 5.0||1 × 4||16000 / 32000||Serial|
|PCIe ×8 5.0||1 × 8||32000 / 64000||Serial|
|PCIe ×16 5.0||1 × 16||64000 / 128000||Serial|
- List of computer hardware
- List of graphics card manufacturers
- Computer display standards – a detailed list of standards like SVGA, WXGA, WUXGA, etc.
- AMD (ATI), Nvidia – quasi duopoly of 3D chip GPU and graphics card designers
- GeForce, Radeon, Intel Arc – examples of graphics card series
- GPGPU (i.e.: CUDA, AMD FireStream)
- Framebuffer – the computer memory used to store a screen image
- Capture card – the inverse of a graphics card
- ^ "ExplainingComputers.com: Hardware". www.explainingcomputers.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-17. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ "OpenGL vs DirectX - Cprogramming.com". www.cprogramming.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ "Powering Change with NVIDIA AI and Data Science". NVIDIA. Archived from the original on 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
- ^ a b Parrish, Kevin (2017-07-10). "Graphics cards dedicated to cryptocurrency mining are here, and we have the list". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 2020-08-01. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- ^ "Graphic Card Components". pctechguide.com. 2011-09-23. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ Radius Inc (1989-07-01). Radius QuickColor Graphics Accelerator Brochure.
- ^ a b c d "Add-in board-market down in Q2, AMD gains market share [Press Release]". Jon Peddie Research. 16 August 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ^ Crijns, Koen (6 September 2013). "Intel Iris Pro 5200 graphics review: the end of mid-range GPUs?". hardware.info. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ^ "Introducing The GeForce GTX 780 Ti". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ^ "Test Results: Power Consumption For Mining & Gaming - The Best GPUs For Ethereum Mining, Tested and Compared". Tom's Hardware. 2018-03-30. Archived from the original on 2018-12-01. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
- ^ "Faster, Quieter, Lower: Power Consumption and Noise Level of Contemporary Graphics Cards". xbitlabs.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-04.
- ^ "Video Card Power Consumption". codinghorror.com. 18 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- ^ Maxim Integrated Products. "Power-Supply Management Solution for PCI Express x16 Graphics 150W-ATX Add-In Cards". Archived from the original on 2009-12-05. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
- ^ "What is a Low Profile Video Card?". Outletapex. Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
- ^ "Best 'low profile' graphics card". Tom's Hardware. Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
- ^ "RTX 4090 | GeForce RTX 4090 Graphics Card". GeForce. Archived from the original on 2023-03-08. Retrieved 2023-04-03.
- ^ "SLI". geforce.com. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- ^ "SLI vs. CrossFireX: The DX11 generation". techreport.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-27. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- ^ Adrian Kingsley-Hughes. "NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680 in quad-SLI configuration benchmarked". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- ^ "Head to Head: Quad SLI vs. Quad CrossFireX". Maximum PC. Archived from the original on 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- ^ "How to Build a Quad SLI Gaming Rig | GeForce". www.geforce.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ a b "How to Build a Quad SLI Gaming Rig | GeForce". www.geforce.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ "NVIDIA Quad-SLI|NVIDIA". www.nvidia.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- ^ Abazovic, Fuad. "Crossfire and SLI market is just 300.000 units". www.fudzilla.com. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "Is Multi-GPU Dead?". Tech Altar. January 7, 2018. Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- ^ "Nvidia SLI and AMD CrossFire is dead – but should we mourn multi-GPU gaming? | TechRadar". www.techradar.com. 24 August 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "Hardware Selection and Configuration Guide" (PDF). documents.blackmagicdesign.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
- ^ "Recommended System: Recommended Systems for DaVinci Resolve". Puget Systems. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "GPU Accelerated Rendering and Hardware Encoding". helpx.adobe.com. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "V-Ray Next Multi-GPU Performance Scaling". Puget Systems. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "FAQ | GPU-accelerated 3D rendering software | Redshift". www.redshift3d.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-11. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "OctaneRender 2020 Preview is here!". Archived from the original on 2020-03-07. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ Williams, Rob. "Exploring Performance With Autodesk's Arnold Renderer GPU Beta – Techgage". techgage.com. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "GPU Rendering — Blender Manual". docs.blender.org. Archived from the original on 2020-04-16. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "V-Ray for Nuke – Ray Traced Rendering for Compositors | Chaos Group". www.chaosgroup.com. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "System Requirements | Nuke | Foundry". www.foundry.com. Archived from the original on 2020-08-01. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- ^ "What about multi-GPU support?". Archived from the original on 2021-01-18. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
- ^ a b "Graphics Card Market Up Sequentially in Q3, NVIDIA Gains as AMD Slips". Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ^ a b Chen, Monica (16 April 2013). "Palit, PC Partner surpass Asustek in graphics card market share". DIGITIMES. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- ^ a b Shilov, Anton. "Discrete Desktop GPU Market Trends Q2 2016: AMD Grabs Market Share, But NVIDIA Remains on Top". Anandtech. Archived from the original on 2018-01-23. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- ^ Chanthadavong, Aimee. "Nvidia touts GPU processing as the future of big data". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- ^ "Here's why you can't buy a high-end graphics card at Best Buy". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2018-01-21. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- ^ "GPU Prices Skyrocket, Breaking the Entire DIY PC Market". ExtremeTech. 2018-01-19. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- ^ GetNews. "How Graphics Card shortage is killing PC Gaming". Digital Journal. Archived from the original on 2021-09-01. Retrieved 2021-09-01.
- ^ "How Graphics Card shortage is killing PC Gaming". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 2021-09-01. Retrieved 2021-09-01.
- ^ "NVIDIA TITAN RTX is Here". NVIDIA. Archived from the original on 2019-11-08. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
- ^ "Refresh rate recommended". Archived from the original on 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
- ^ "HDMI FAQ". HDMI.org. Archived from the original on 2018-02-22. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
- ^ "DisplayPort Technical Overview" (PDF). VESA.org. January 10, 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- ^ "FAQ Archive – DisplayPort". VESA. Archived from the original on 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- ^ "The Truth About DisplayPort vs. HDMI". dell.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- ^ https://www.matrox.com/sites/default/files/en_g550_guide.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- ^ "Video Signals and Connectors". Apple. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- ^ "How to Connect Component Video to a VGA Projector". AZCentral. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- ^ "Quality Difference Between Component vs. HDMI". Extreme Tech. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- ^ PCIe 2.1 has the same clock and bandwidth as PCIe 2.0
- Mueller, Scott (2005) Upgrading and Repairing PCs. 16th edition. Que Publishing. ISBN 0-7897-3173-8