From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Original author(s)Kannan Muthukkaruppan, Karthik Ranganathan, Mikhail Bautin
Developer(s)Yugabyte, Inc.
Initial release2016; 7 years ago (2016)
Stable release
2.16 (Stable)
2.17 (Development) / December 15, 2022; 4 months ago (2022-12-15)
December 8, 2022; 5 months ago (2022-12-08)
Written inC++
Operating systemLinux RedHat 7.x and derivatives, MacOS
PlatformBare Metal, Virtual Machine, Docker, Kubernetes and various container management platforms
Available inEnglish
LicenseApache 2.0
Websitewww.yugabyte.com Edit this on Wikidata
Yugabyte, Inc.
Founded2016; 7 years ago (2016)
FounderKannan Muthukkaruppan, Karthik Ranganathan, Mikhail Bautin
HeadquartersSunnyvale, California, USA
Key people
Kannan Muthukkaruppan
(Co-Founder & President,
Product Development)

Karthik Ranganathan
(Co-Founder & CTO)
Mikhail Bautin
(Co-Founder &
Software Architect)

Bill Cook
ServicesCommercial database management systems

YugabyteDB is a high-performance transactional distributed SQL database for cloud-native applications, developed by Yugabyte.[1]


Yugabyte was founded by ex-Facebook engineers Kannan Muthukkaruppan, Karthik Ranganathan, and Mikhail Bautin. At Facebook, they were part of the team that built and operated Cassandra and HBase[2][3] during a period of significant growth in workloads such as Facebook Messenger and Facebook's Operational Data Store.[4]

The founders came together in February 2016 to build YugabyteDB,[5] believing that the trends they experienced at Facebook – microservices, containerization, high availability, geographic distribution, APIs, and open-source – were relevant to all businesses, especially as they move from on-premise to cloud-native operations.[6]

YugabyteDB was initially available in two editions: community and enterprise. In July 2019, Yugabyte open sourced previously commercial features and launched YugabyteDB as open-source under the Apache 2.0 license.

The rapid evolution of the product led to being named as a 2020 Gartner Cool Vendor in Data Management.[7]

Yugabyte launched Yugabyte Cloud,[8] now renamed YugabyteDB Managed, a fully managed database-as-a-service offering of YugabyteDB, in September 2021.[9]


Six years after the company's inception, Yugabyte closed a $188 Million Series C funding round to become a Unicorn start-up with a valuation of $1.3Bn[10]

Funding Rounds
Series Date Announced Amount Investors
A 10 Feb 2016 $8M Lightspeed Venture Partners, Jeff Rothschild[11][12]
A 12 Jun 2018 $16M Lightspeed Venture Partners, Dell Technology Capital[13][14]
B 09 Jun 2020 $30M Wipro Ventures, Lightspeed Venture Partners. Dell Technology Capital. 8VC [15][16]
B 03 Mar 2021 $48M Wipro Ventures. Lightspeed Venture Partners. Greenspring Associates, Dell Technology Capital, 8VC[17][18]
C 28 Oct 2021 $188M Wells Fargo Strategic Capital, Sapphire Ventures, Meritech Capital Partners, Lightspeed Venture Partners, Dell Technology Capital, 8VC[19][20][21]


YugabyteDB is a distributed SQL database that aims to be strongly transactionally consistent across failure zones (i.e. ACID compliance].[22][23] Jepsen testing, the de facto industry standard for verifying correctness, has never fully passed, mainly due to race conditions during schema changes.[24] In CAP Theorem terms YugabyteDB is a Consistent/Partition Tolerant (CP) database.[25][26][27]

YugabyteDB has two layers,[28] a storage engine known as DocDB and the Yugabyte Query Layer.[29]

Architecture Block Diagram for YugabyteDB
YugabyteDB Architecture


The storage engine consists of a customized RocksDB[29][30] combined with sharding and load balancing algorithms for the data. In addition, the Raft consensus algorithm controls the replication of data between the nodes.[29][30] There is also a Distributed transaction manager[29][30] and Multiversion concurrency control (MVCC)[29][30] to support distributed transactions.[30]

The engine also exploits a Hybrid Logical Clock[31][29] that combines coarsely-synchronized physical clocks with Lamport clocks to track causal relationships.[32]

The DocDB layer is not directly accessible by users.[29]

YugabyteDB Query Layer[edit]

Yugabyte has a pluggable query layer that abstracts the query layer from the storage layer below.[33] There are currently two APIs that can access the database:[30]

YSQL[34] is a PostgreSQL code-compatible API[35][36] based around v11.2. YSQL is accessed via standard PostgreSQL drivers using native protocols.[37] It exploits the native PostgreSQL code for the query layer[38] and replaces the storage engine with calls to the pluggable query layer. This re-use means that Yugabyte supports many features, including:

  • Triggers & Stored Procedures[36]
  • PostgreSQL extensions that operate in the query layer[36]
  • Native JSONB support[36]

YCQL[39] is a Cassandra-like API based around v3.10 and re-written in C++. YCQL is accessed via standard Cassandra drivers[40] using the native protocol port of 9042. In addition to the 'vanilla' Cassandra components, YCQL is augmented with the following features:

  • Transactional consistency - unlike Cassandra, Yugabyte YCQL is transactional.[41]
  • JSON data types supported natively[42]
  • Tables can have secondary indexes[43]

Currently, data written to either API is not accessible via the other API, however YSQL can access YCQL using the PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper feature.[44]

The security model for accessing the system is inherited from the API, so access controls for YSQL look like PostgreSQL,[45] and YCQL looks like Cassandra access controls.[46]

Cluster-to-cluster replication[edit]

In addition to its core functionality of distributing a single database, YugabyteDB has the ability to replicate between database instances.[47][48] The replication can be one-way or bi-directional and is asynchronous. One-way replication is used either to create a read-only copy for workload off-loading or in a read-write mode to create an active-passive standby. Bi-directional replication is generally used in read-write configurations and is used for active-active configurations, geo-distributed applications, etc.

Migration Tooling[edit]

Yugabyte also provides YugabyteDB Voyager, tooling to facilitate the migration of Oracle and other similar databases to YugabyteDB.[49][50] This tool supports the migration of schemas, procedural code and data from the source platform to YugabyteDB.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "YugabyteDB System Properties". DB-Engines. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  2. ^ "Karthik Ranganathan". Dataversity. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  3. ^ Borthakur, Dhruba; Rash, Samuel; Schmidt, Rodrigo; Aiyer, Amitanand; Gray, Jonathan; Sarma, Joydeep Sen; Muthukkaruppan, Kannan; Spiegelberg, Nicolas; Kuang, Hairong; Ranganathan, Karthik; Molkov, Dmytro; Menon, Aravind (2011). Apache hadoop goes realtime at Facebook. Association For Computer Machinery. p. 1071. doi:10.1145/1989323.1989438. ISBN 9781450306614. S2CID 207188340. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  4. ^ "YugaByte Raises $8M in Series A Funding". FINSMES. 2 November 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  5. ^ "Yugabyte CTO outlines a PostgreSQL path to distributed cloud". VentureBeat. 26 July 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Yugabyte expands its fully managed enterprise cloud service with $188M". VentureBeat. 28 October 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  7. ^ "Yugabyte Named a 2020 Gartner Cool Vendor in Data Management". BusinessWire. 2 November 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  8. ^ "Yugabyte Cloud: a Managed Distributed SQL Database". InfoQ. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Yugabyte Delivers Effortless Distributed SQL With Cloud Database-as-a-Service". BusinessWire. 21 September 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  10. ^ "Another cloud native SQL database unicorn: Yugabyte raises $188M Series C funding at $1.3B valuation". ZDNet. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  11. ^ "YugaByte Raises $8M in Series A Funding". Finsmes. 2 November 2017.
  12. ^ "YugaByte Receives $8M Series A Round". VC News Daily. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  13. ^ "YugaByte raises $16 Million to combine SQL and NoSQL in a single database". Technologies.org. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  14. ^ "YugaByte's new database software rakes in $16 million so developers can move to any cloud". TechCrunch. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  15. ^ "Another globally distributed cloud native SQL database on the rise: Yugabyte Raises $30 million in Series B Funding". ZDNet. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  16. ^ "Yugabyte raises $30M for its cloud-native distributed SQL database". SiliconAngle. 9 June 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  17. ^ "Yugabyte raises $48M for open source SQL database alternative". VentureBeat. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  18. ^ "Yugabyte Raises $48 Million Funding Round to Accelerate Distributed SQL Enterprise Adoption and Fuel Global Expansion". YahoonFinance. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  19. ^ "Yugabyte's latest funding round values the distributed SQL system at $1.3bn". The Register. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  20. ^ "Another cloud native SQL database unicorn: Yugabyte raises $188M Series C funding at $1.3B valuation". ZDNet. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  21. ^ "High-performance database startup Yugabyte raises $188M in new funding round". Silicon Angle. 28 October 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  22. ^ "ACID Transactions". Devopedia. 18 August 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  23. ^ "ICT Solutions for local flexibility markets" (PDF). Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti. Proceedings of the IE 2020 International Conference. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  24. ^ "YugaByte DB 1.3.1". Jepsen.io. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  25. ^ "YugaByteDB: A Distributed Cloud Native Database for a Highly Scalable Data Store". Open Source Foru. 14 September 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  26. ^ "Yugabyte Design Goals". Yugabyte.com. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  27. ^ Galić, Zdravko; Vuzem, Mario (2020). "A Generic and Extensible Core and Prototype of Consistent, Distributed, and Resilient LIS". ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 9 (7): 437. Bibcode:2020IJGI....9..437G. doi:10.3390/ijgi9070437.
  28. ^ "Yugabyte Layered Architecture". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Hirsch, Orhan Henrik. "Scalability of NewSQL Databases in a Cloud Environment" (PDF). Norwegian University of Science and Technology. NYNU Open. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Budholia, Akash. "NewSQL Monitoring System". San Jose State University Scholar Works. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  31. ^ "Hybrid Clock". Martin Fowler. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  32. ^ "Distributed Transactions without Atomic Clocks" (PDF). Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  33. ^ "Yugabyte DB 2.0 Ships Production-Ready Distributed SQL Database for Going Cloud Native". Integration Developer News. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  34. ^ "Yugabyte Structured Query Language (YSQL)". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  35. ^ "Yugabyte Meets Developer Demand for Comprehensive PostgreSQL Compatibility with YugabyteDB 2.11". BusinessWire. 23 November 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  36. ^ a b c d "PostgreSQL Compatibility in YugabyteDB 2.0". Yugabyte. 17 September 2019.
  37. ^ "Client Drivers for YSQL". Yugabyte.
  38. ^ "Why We Built YugabyteDB by Reusing the PostgreSQL Query Layer". Yugabyte. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  39. ^ "Yugabyte Cloud Query Language (YCQL)". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  40. ^ "Client drivers for YCQL". Yugabyte.
  41. ^ "ACID Transactions". Yugabyte.
  42. ^ "YCQL JSONB Data Type". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  43. ^ "YCQL Secondary Indexes". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  44. ^ "YugabyteDB: Postgres foreign data wrapper". Gruchalski. 8 November 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  45. ^ "YSQL Access Control". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  46. ^ "YCWL access Controls". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  47. ^ "Yugabyte Expands Multi-Region Database Capabilities and Enterprise-Grade Security with YugabyteDB 2.5". Business Wire. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  48. ^ "xCLuster Replication". Yugabyte. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  49. ^ "Yugabyte simplifies SQL database migration with YugabyteDB Voyager". siliconANGLE. 24 January 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  50. ^ "Yugabyte chomps into cloud migration". Techzine. 2 February 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.

External links[edit]