Grebe

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Grebes
Temporal range: Early Miocene-Holocene, 23.03–0 Ma
Flickr - Rainbirder - Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus).jpg
Great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Neoaves
Clade: Mirandornithes
Order: Podicipediformes
Fürbringer, 1888
Family: Podicipedidae
Bonaparte, 1831
Type genus
Podiceps
Subclades

Grebes (/ˈɡrbz/) are aquatic diving birds in the order Podicipediformes /ˌpɒdɪsɪˈpɛdɪfɔːrmz/.[1] Grebes are widely distributed freshwater birds, with some species also found in marine habitats during migration and winter. Some flightless species exist as well, most notably in stable lakes. The order contains a single family, the Podicipedidae, which includes 22 species in six extant genera. Although, superficially, they resemble other diving birds such as loons and coots, they are most closely related to flamingos, as supported by morphological, molecular and paleontological data. Many species are monogamous and are known for their courtship displays, with the pair performing synchronized dances across the water's surface. The birds build floating vegetative nests where they lay several eggs. About a third of the world's grebes are listed at various levels of conservation concerns—the biggest threats including habitat loss, the introduction of invasive predatory fish and human poaching. As such, three species have gone extinct.

Field characteristics[edit]

A diving grebe showing how the hindlimbs are propelling the bird underwater.
A little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) running along the surface of the water as it flaps their wings, in order to get the lift it needs to fly.

Grebes are small to medium-large in size ranging from the least grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus), at 120 g (4.3 oz) and 23.5 cm (9.3 in), to the great grebe (Podiceps major), at 1.7 kg (3.8 lbs) and 71 cm (28 in). Despite these size differences grebes are a homogenous family of waterbirds with very few or slight differences among the genera.

Anatomy and physiology[edit]

A skeleton of a red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena). Note the size of the pelvic girdle in comparison to the sternum, being bigger than the latter.

On the surface of the water they swim low with just the head and neck exposed. All species have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. The feet are always large, with broad lobes on the toes and small webs connecting the front three toes. The hind toe also has a small lobe as well. The claws are similar to nails and are flat. These lobate feet act as an oar, as when moving forward they provide minimum resistance and moving backwards they provide a coverage of maximum surface. The leg bones femur and tarsometatarsus are equal in length, with the femur having a large head and the presence of long cnemial crests in the tarsometatarsus. The patella is separate and supports tarsometatarsus posteriorly which greatly helps with the contraction in the muscles. They swim by simultaneously spreading out the feet and bringing them inward, with the webbing expanded to produce the forward thrust in much the same way as frogs. However due to the anatomy of the legs, grebes are not as mobile on land as they are on the water. Although they can run for a short distance, they are prone to falling over, since they have their feet placed far back on the body.[2][3][4][5][6]

The wing shape varies depending on the species, ranging from moderately long to incredibly short and rounded in shape. The wing anatomy in grebes has relatively short and thin carpometacarpus-phalanges component which supports their primaries, while the ulna is long and fairly weak supporting secondaries. There are 11 primaries and 17 to 22 secondaries, with the inner secondaries being longer than the primaries. As such grebes are generally not strong or rapid fliers as some species are reluctant to fly. Indeed, two South American species are completely flightless. Since grebes mostly dive than fly, the sternum can be as small or even smaller than the pelvic girdle. When they do fly, they often launch themselves off from the water and must run along the surface as they flap their wings to provide a lift.[3]

Bills vary from short and thick to long and pointed depending on the diet, and are slightly larger in males than in females (though the sizes can overlap between younger males and females).[5]

Feathers[edit]

A great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) chick with its downy feathers and striped head.
A great crested grebe in nonbreeding or winter plumage.
A pair of great crested grebe in breeding plumage as they perform a courtship ritual.

Grebes have unusual plumage. It is dense and waterproof, and on the underside the feathers are at right angles to the skin, sticking straight out to begin with and curling at the tip. By pressing their feathers against the body, grebes can adjust their buoyancy. Often, they swim low in the water with just the head and neck exposed. They swim by simultaneously spreading out the feet and bringing them inward, with the webbing expanded to produce the forward thrust in much the same way as frogs. In the nonbreeding season, grebes are plain-coloured in dark browns and whites. However, most have ornate and distinctive breeding plumages, often developing chestnut markings on the head area, and perform elaborate display rituals.[4] The young, particularly those of the genus Podiceps, are often striped and retain some of their juvenile plumage even after reaching full size. When preening, grebes eat their own feathers and feed them to their young. The function of this behaviour is uncertain, but it is believed to assist with pellet formation[7] and to reduce their vulnerability to gastric parasites.

Systematics[edit]

Many molecular and morphological studies support a relationship between grebes and flamingos.

The grebes are a radically distinct group of birds as regards their anatomy. Accordingly, they were at first believed to be related to the loons, which are also foot-propelled diving birds, and both families were once classified together under the order Colymbiformes. However, as early as the 1930s, this was determined to be an example of convergent evolution by the strong selective forces encountered by unrelated birds sharing the same lifestyle at different times and in different habitat.[8] Grebes and loons are now separately classified orders of Podicipediformes and Gaviiformes, respectively. Recent molecular studies have suggested a relation with flamingos[9][10][11] while morphological evidence also strongly supports a relationship between flamingos and grebes. They hold at least eleven morphological traits in common, which are not found in other birds. Many of these characteristics have been previously identified in flamingos, but not in grebes.[12] For the grebe-flamingo clade, the taxon Mirandornithes ("miraculous birds" due to their extreme divergence and apomorphies) has been proposed. Alternatively, they could be placed in one order, with Phoenocopteriformes taking priority.[13]

Fossil record[edit]

Reconstructed skeleton of fossil slab of Thiornis sociata, an early grebe.

The fossil record of grebes is incomplete as there are no transitional forms between more conventional birds and the highly derived grebes known from fossils. The enigmatic waterbird genus Juncitarsus, however, may be close to a common ancestor of flamingos and grebes. The extinct stem-flamingo family Palaelodidae have been suggested to be the transitional linkage between the filter-feeding flamingos and the foot-propelled diving grebes. The evidence for this comes from the overall similarity between the foot and limb structure of grebes and palaeloids, suggesting the latter family of waterbirds were able to swim and dive better so than flamingos. Some early grebes even share similar charactersitcs in the coracoid and humerus seen in palaeloids.[13] [14][15]

True grebes suddenly appear in the fossil record in the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene, around 23–25 mya. While there are a few prehistoric genera that are now completely extinct. Thiornis (Late Miocene –? Early Pliocene of Libros, Spain)[16][17] and Pliolymbus (Late Pliocene of WC USA – Early? Pleistocene of Chapala, Mexico)[18][19] date from a time when most if not all extant genera were already present.[16] Because grebes are evolutionarily isolated and they only started to appear in the Northern Hemisphere fossil record in the Early Miocene, they are likely to have originated in the Southern Hemisphere.[20]

A few more recent grebe fossils could not be assigned to modern or prehistoric genera:

  • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (San Diego Late Pliocene of California) – formerly included in Podiceps parvus[18]
  • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP 49592, 52261, 51848, 52276, KUVP 4484 (Late Pliocene of WC USA)[21]
  • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Idaho, USA)[21][22]

Phylogeny[edit]

To date there is no complete phylogeny of grebes based on molecular work. However there are comprehensive morphological work from Bochenski (1994),[23] Fjeldså (2004)[6] and Ksepka et al. (2013)[24] that has been done on the grebe genera.

Recent species listing[edit]

Image Genus Living species
Podilymbus-podiceps-001.jpg Podilymbus Lesson 1831
  • Atitlán grebe, Podilymbus gigas Griscom 1929 (extinct 1989)
  • Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus 1758)
    • P. p. magnus
    • P. p. antillarum Bangs 1913 (Antillean pied-billed grebe)
    • P. p. podiceps (Linnaeus 1758) (northern pied-billed grebe)
    • P. p. antarcticus (Lesson 1842) (southern pied-billed grebe)
Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)- Breeding plumage W2 IMG 8770.jpg Tachybaptus Reichenbach 1853
  • Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas 1764)
    • T. r. ruficollis (Pallas 1764) (European little grebe)
    • T. r. albescens (Blanford 1877) (Indian little grebe)
    • T. r. iraquensis (Ticehurst 1923) (Iraq little grebe)
    • T. r. capensis (Salvadori 1884) (African little grebe)
    • T. r. poggei (Reichenow 1902)
    • T. r. philippensis (Bonnaterre 1790) (Philippine little grebe)
    • T. r. cotabato (Rand 1948) (Mindanao little grebe)
  • Tricolored grebe, Tachybaptus tricolor (Gray 1861)
    • T. t. vulcanorum (Rensch 1929)
    • T. t. tricolor (Gray 1861)
    • T. t. collaris (Mayr 1945)
  • Australasian grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae (Stephens 1826)
    • T. n. javanicus (Mayr 1943)
    • T. n. fumosus (Mayr 1943)
    • T. n. incola (Mayr 1943)
    • T. n. novaehollandiae (Stephens 1826) (Australian little grebe)
    • T. n. leucosternos (Mayr 1931)
    • T. n. rennellianus (Mayr 1943)
  • Madagascar grebe, Tachybaptus pelzelnii (Hartlaub 1861)
  • Alaotra grebe, Tachybaptus rufolavatus (Delacour 1932) (extinct 2010)
  • Least grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus 1766)
    • T. d. brachypterus (Chapman 1899) (Mexican least grebe)
    • T. d. bangsi (van Rossem & Hachisuka 1937) (Bangs' grebe)
    • T. d. dominicus (Linnaeus 1766) (West Indian grebe)
    • T. d. brachyrhynchus (Chapman 1899) (short-billed grebe)
    • T. d. eisenmanni Storer & Getty 1985
Poliocephalus poliocephalus RB.jpg Poliocephalus Selby, 1840
101 - CLARK'S GREBE (5-18-08) santa margarita lake, sloco, ca (2) (8722134244).jpg Aechmophorus Coues, 1862
  • Western grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence 1858)
    • A. o. ephemeralis Dickerman 1986
    • A. o. occidentalis (Lawrence 1858)
  • Clark's grebe, Aechmophorus clarkii (Lawrence 1858)
    • A. c. clarkii (Lawrence 1858)
    • A. c. transitionalis Dickerman 1986
Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) (14).JPG Podiceps Latham 1787
  • Great grebe, Podiceps major (Boddaert 1783) Bochenski 1994
    • P. m. major (Boddaert 1783)
    • P. m. navasi Manghi 1984
  • Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert 1783)
    • P. g. grisegena (Boddaert 1783) (gray-cheeked grebe)
    • P. g. holbollii Reinhardt 1853 (Holbøll's grebe)
  • Great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus 1758)
    • P. c. cristatus (Linnaeus 1758) (Eurasian great crested grebe)
    • P. c. infuscatus Salvadori 1884 (African great crested grebe)
    • P. c. australis Gould 1844 (Australasian great crested grebe)
  • Horned grebe or Slavonian grebe, Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus 1758)
    • P. a. auritus (Linnaeus 1758) (Eurasian Horned Grebe)
    • P. a. cornutus (Gmelin 1789)
  • Black-necked grebe or eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis Brehm 1831
    • P. n. nigricollis Brehm 1831 (Eurasian Black-necked Grebe)
    • P. n. gurneyi (Roberts 1919) (African black-necked grebe)
  • Colombian grebe, Podiceps andinus (Meyer de Schauensee 1959) (extinct 1977)
  • Silvery grebe, Podiceps occipitalis Garnot 1826
    • P. o. juninensis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann 1894 (northern silvery grebe)
    • P. o. occipitalis Garnot 1826 (Southern silvery Grebe)
  • Junin grebe, Podiceps taczanowskii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann 1894
  • Hooded grebe, Podiceps gallardoi Rumboll 1974
Rollandia rolland-swims.jpg Rollandia Bonaparte, 1856
  • White-tufted grebe, Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824
    • R. r. rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Falkland white-tufted Grebe)
    • R. r. chilensis Lesson 1828 (Chilean white-tufted Grebe)
    • R. r. morrisoni Simmons 1962 (Junín white-tufted grebe)
  • Titicaca grebe, Rollandia microptera Gould 1868

Natural history[edit]

Habitat, distribution and migration[edit]

Grebes are a nearly cosmopolitan clade of waterbirds, found on every continent except Antarctica. They are absent from the Arctic circle and arid environments. They have successfully colonized and radiated into islands such as Madagascar and New Zealand. Some species such as the eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) and great crested grebe (P. cristatus) are found in multiple continents with regional subspecies or populations. A few species like the Junin grebe (P. taczanowskii) and the recently extinct Atitlan grebe (Podilymbus gigas) are lake endemics. During the warmer or breeding seasons, many species of grebes in the northern hemisphere reside in a variety of freshwater habitats like lakes and marshes. Once winter arrives many will migrate to marine environments usually along the coastlines. The species is most prevalent in the New World with almost half of the world's species living in this part of the world.[3][26]

Feeding ecology[edit]

The pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) is a small species of grebe that mostly hunts aquatic invertebrates. Here a parent feeds their chicks a crayfish.
The Clark's grebe (Aechmophorus clarkii) is a large species of grebe that mostly hunts fish. Here a parent feeds their chick.

The feeding ecology of grebes is diverse within the group. Larger species such as those in the genus Aechmophorus have spear-like bills to catch mid-depth fish while smaller species such as those in the genera Tachybaptus and Podilymbus tend to be short and stout with a preference for catching small aquatic invertebrates. There are much more species of grebes that predate on aquatic invertebrates, with only a handful of large-bodied piscivores. The aforementioned Aechmophorusis the most piscivorous of the grebes. Closely related species that overlap in their often avoid interspecific competition by having prey preferences and adaptations for it. In areas where there is just as a single species, they tend to have more generalized bill with more open preferences to different prey sources.[3]

Breeding and reproduction[edit]

Grebes are perhaps best known for their elaborate courtship displays. Most species perform a duet together and many have their own synchronized rituals. Some like those species in the genus Podiceps do the iconic "penguin dance" where the male and female stand upright, breast posturing out and run along the water's surface. A similar ritual in other species is the "weed dance" in which both partners hold pieces of aquatic vegetation in their bills and positioned upright towards each other. Similarily there is the "weed rush" in which partners would swim towards each other, necks stretched out with weeds in their bill, and just before colliding do posture themselves upright and then swim in parallel. In the smaller and basal genera like Tachybaptus and Podilymbus there is some form of incorporation of aquatic vegetation in their courtship, but it is not as elaborate as the more derived and larger species. It has been hypothesized that such courtship displays between mates originated from intraspecific aggression that evolved in a way it strengthen pair bonds. Once these courtship rituals are completed, both partners would solicit copulation towards each other and would mount on these floating platforms of vegetation. Sometimes they become nests, although often they build a more well structured platform. Females lay two to seven eggs and incubation can last nearly a month. Chicks of the nest hatch asynchronously and once the whole nest has hatched, do the chicks begin to climb on one of their parent's backs. Both parents take care of rearing their young, and the duration of care is longer than those of waterfowl. This enables a greater success rate of survival for the chicks. One parent would dive while the other would watch the young on the surface.[3][5][6]

Parasitology[edit]

The leech genus Theromyzon is an external parasite that has been found in the nasal cavities of grebes.

249 species of parasitic worms have been known to parasitized the intestinal region of grebes. The amabiliids are a family of cyclophyllid cestodes that are nearly grebe specialists, with 28 of the 29 that infect the intestines. The life cycle of these tapeworms begins when eggs are passed through the feces, where they are picked by the intermediate host which include corixid bugs and the nymphs of Odonata. Another grebe specialist family of internal parasites are the Dioecocestidae. These aquatic insects would eventually be consumed by grebes where the lifecycle would repeat again. Other families such as Echinostomatidae and Hymenolepididae also contained several cestode species that are grebe specialists, though other species in those families have infect other waterbird lineages.[27]

The prominent external parasites are the lice of the clade Ischnocera with several genera and species are known to parasitized grebes and other waterbirds. One genus of these lice Aquanirmus is the only one that is a grebe specialist. Another major group are the two mites of the families Rhinonyssidae and Ereynetidae infect the nasal passages of grebes where the rhinonyssids move slowly in the mucus membranes drinking blood, while the ereynetids live on the surface. Various of lineages of feather mites of the clade Analgoidea have evolved to occupy different sections of the feather. There is a leech, the leech genus Theromyzon ("duck leeches") that tend to feed in the nasal cavities of waterbirds in general including grebes.[27]

Conservation[edit]

Alaotra grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus) was one of the three species of lake endemic grebes that have gone extinct. Habitat alteration and introduction of invasive species of predatory fish had contributed to their extinction.

Thirty percent of the total extant species are considered to be threaten species by the IUCN. The handful of critically endangered and extinct species of grebe are those of lake endemics and nearly all of them are or were flightless. The extinct species consists of the Alaotra grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus), the Atitlán grebe, and the Colombian grebe (Podiceps andinus). These species went extinct due to anthropogenic changes, such as habitat loss, the introduction of invasive predatory fishes, and the usage of fishing nets that tangled birds in the lakes they once existed in. These are the same issues along with climate change that are happening to the Colombian grebe's closest relatives, the Junin grebe and hooded grebe (Po. gallardoi).[28][29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mace, Alice E. (1986). "Changes Through Time". The Birds Around Us (Hardcover ed.). Ortho Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-89721-068-3.
  2. ^ Frank, Harry R.; Neu, Wolfgang (1 September 1929). "Die Schwimmbewegungen der Tauchvögel (Podiceps)" [The swimming movements of diving birds (Podiceps)]. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie (in German). 10 (3): 410–418. doi:10.1007/BF00339264. S2CID 31898176.
  3. ^ a b c d e Johnsgard, P. (1987). Diving Birds of North America. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803225664.
  4. ^ a b Fjeldså, John (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-1-85391-186-6.
  5. ^ a b c Ogilvie, M. A. (2002). Grebes of the World. Bruce Coleman Books. ISBN 978-1872842035.
  6. ^ a b c d Fjeldså, J. (2004). The Grebes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198500643.
  7. ^ Simmons (1956). "Feather-eating and Pellet-formation in the Great Crested Grebe". Br. Birds. 49: 432–435.
  8. ^ Stolpe, Max (1 January 1935). "Colymbus, Hesperornis, Podiceps: ein Vergleich ihrer hinteren Extremität" [Colymbus, Hesperornis, Podiceps: a comparison of their hind limbs]. Journal für Ornithologie (in German). 83 (1): 115–128. doi:10.1007/BF01908745. S2CID 11147804.
  9. ^ Chubb, A.L. (January 2004). "New nuclear evidence for the oldest divergence among neognath birds: the phylogenetic utility of ZENK (i)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (1): 140–151. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00159-3. PMID 15022765.
  10. ^ Ericson, Per G.P; Anderson, Cajsa L; Britton, Tom; Elzanowski, Andrzej; Johansson, Ulf S; Källersjö, Mari; Ohlson, Jan I; Parsons, Thomas J; Zuccon, Dario; Mayr, Gerald (22 December 2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003. PMID 17148284.
  11. ^ Hackett, Shannon J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Reddy, Sushma; Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Braun, Edward L.; Braun, Michael J.; Chojnowski, Jena L.; Cox, W. Andrew; Han, Kin-Lan; Harshman, John; Huddleston, Christopher J.; Marks, Ben D.; Miglia, Kathleen J.; Moore, William S.; Sheldon, Frederick H.; Steadman, David W.; Witt, Christopher C.; Yuri, Tamaki (27 June 2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science. 320 (5884): 1763–1768. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1763H. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609. S2CID 6472805.
  12. ^ Mayr, Gerald (February 2004). "Morphological evidence for sister group relationship between flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae) and grebes (Podicipedidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 140 (2): 157–169. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00094.x.
  13. ^ a b Mayr, Gerald (2006). "The contribution of fossils to the reconstruction of the higher-level phylogeny of birds" (PDF). Species, Phylogeny and Evolution. 3: 59–64. ISSN 1098-660X. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  14. ^ Mayr, Gerald (2009). Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-89628-9.
  15. ^ Zelenkov, N. V. (2015). "A Primitive Grebe (Aves, Podicipedidae) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Lake Baikal, Olkhon Island)". Paleontological Journal. 49 (5): 521–529. doi:10.1134/S0031030115050159. S2CID 130057204.
  16. ^ a b Storer, Robert W. (April 2000). "The systematic position of the Miocene grebe Thiornis sociata Navás". Annales de Paléontologie. 86 (2): 129–139. doi:10.1016/S0753-3969(00)80003-8.
  17. ^ Cracraft, Joel (1973). "Systematics and evolution of the Gruiformes (class Aves). 3, Phylogeny of the suborder Grues". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 15 (1): 1–127. hdl:2246/597.
  18. ^ a b Murray, Bertram G. (May 1967). "Grebes from the Late Pliocene of North America". The Condor. 69 (3): 277–288. doi:10.2307/1366317. JSTOR 1366317.
  19. ^ Alvarez, R. (1977). "A Pleistocene Avifauna from Jalisco, Mexico". Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology. University of Michigan. 24 (19): 205–220. hdl:2027.42/48486.
  20. ^ Mlíkovský, Jiří (2010). "A preliminary review of the grebes, family Podicipedidae". In Wells, David (ed.). Systematic Notes on Asian Birds 2010. British Ornithologists' Club. pp. 125–131. ISBN 978-0-9522886-5-7. OCLC 1231997761.
  21. ^ a b Jehl, Joseph R. (January 1967). "Pleistocene Birds from Fossil Lake, Oregon". The Condor. 69 (1): 24–27. doi:10.2307/1366369. JSTOR 1366369.
  22. ^ Wetmore, Alexander (1933). "Pliocene bird remains from Idaho". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 87: 1–12.
  23. ^ a b Bochenski, Z. (1994). "The comparative osteology of grebes (Aves: Podicipediformes) and its systematic implications". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. 37 (1): 191–346.
  24. ^ a b Ksepka, D. T.; Balanoff, A. M.; Bell, M. A.; Houseman, M. D. (2013). "Fossil grebes from the Truckee Formation (Miocene) of Nevada and a new phylogenetic analysis of Podicipediformes (Aves)". Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 56 (5): 1149–1169. doi:10.1111/pala.12040. S2CID 83938510.
  25. ^ Ksepka, D. T.; Kammerer, C. (2013). "Corrigendum: Taxonomic status of the Least Grebe". Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 56 (5): 1171.
  26. ^ Harrison, P.; Perrow, M.; Larsson, H. (2021). Seabirds: The New Identification Guide. Barcelona: Lynx Ediciones. ISBN 978-84-16728-41-1.
  27. ^ a b Storer, R. W. (2000). "The metazoan parasite fauna of grebes (Aves: Podicepediformes) and its relationship to the birds' biology". Miscellaneous Publications-Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. (188): 1–99.
  28. ^ Hume, J. P. (2017). Extinct Birds: Second Edition. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1472937445.
  29. ^ Winkler, D. W.; Billerman, S. M.; Lovette, I. J. (2020). Billerman, S. M.; Keeney, B. K.; Rodewald, P. G.; Schulenberg, T. S. (eds.). "Grebes (Podicipedidae) version 1.0". Birds of the World. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. Retrieved 21 December 2022.

Further reading[edit]

  • Konter, André (2001): Grebes of our world: visiting all species on 5 continents. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-33-4
  • Ogilvie, Malcolm & Rose, Chris (2003): Grebes of the World. Bruce Coleman Books, Uxbridge, England. ISBN 1-872842-03-8
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Monroe, Burt L. Jr. (1990): Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04969-2

External links[edit]